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“I intend, however, to have them examined”: George Washington’s 1785 Chateau Margaux

Extract from Fenwick Mason & Company to George Washington, August 10, 1790, with Invoice. [4]

During the summer of 1791, George Washington received two orders of claret from the firm of Fenwick, Mason & Co. in Bordeaux.  These orders are of interest because they shed light on the quality of the late 18th century Bordeaux vintages.  From these order we do not know what George Washington nor his secretary Tobias Lear thought of  an order of 1786 Chateau Lafite. Fortunately, the assessment of the 1785 Chateau Margaux is preserved.

George Washington’s first order of claret from Fenwick, Mason & Co. met with calamity.  Placed on August 16, 1789, George Washington requested 26 dozen bottles of claret and 26 dozen bottles of Champagne. [1]  As Bordeaux was not the best location to order Champagne, 12 dozen bottles of the sparkling wine were sent from Rheims and 12 dozen bottles of “vins de grave” would come from Bordeaux.[2]  That winter the wine departed for New York via the French packet Jean Jacques.  It was not until July 9, 1790, that George Washington was informed that his wine had not made it to New York, instead due to damage to the ship from the very cold weather, the ship put into Brest where the wine was unloaded.  The cases were split open and a quarter of the bottles were broken. [3]

Fenwick, Mason & Co. sought to have any remaining bottles in Brest sent on to George Washington.[4]  Sadly these bottles were not insured.  Until those wine could arrive, they sent a smaller order of the sames wines from Bordeaux.  It is in the invoice dated August 10, 1790, that we learn that the claret was the 1785 Chateau Margaux.

The smaller, replacement order of wine arrived by the end of June 1791.[5]  On July 7, 1791, Tobias Lear wrote Fenwick, Mason, & Co. noting the arrival of the wine in “good order”.[6]  He specifically wrote that the “claret of the first shipment” that being the 1785 Chateau Margaux, was “pronounced very good”.


[1] “From George Washington to Wakelin Welch & Son, 16 August 1789,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 21, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-03-02-0275. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 3, 15 June 1789–5 September 1789, ed. Dorothy Twohig. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1989, pp. 478–479.]

[2] “To George Washington from Fenwick, Mason, & Company, 5 December 1789,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 21, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-04-02-0258. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 4, 8 September 1789 – 15 January 1790, ed. Dorothy Twohig. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1993, p. 364.]

[3] “To George Washington from Fenwick, Mason, & Company, 9 July 1790,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 21, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-06-02-0021. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 6, 1 July 1790 – 30 November 1790, ed. Mark A. Mastromarino. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1996, pp. 38–40.]

[4] Fenwick Mason & Company to George Washington, August 10, 1790, with Invoice.  George Washington Papers at the Library of Congress, 1741-1799: Series 4. General Correspondence. 1697-1799.  URL: https://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=mgw4&fileName=gwpage099.db&recNum=720&tempFile=./temp/~ammem_QE3I&filecode=mgw&next_filecode=mgw&prev_filecode=mgw&itemnum=19&ndocs=100

[5] “To George Washington from Tobias Lear, 23 June 1791,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 21, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-08-02-0201. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 8, 22 March 1791 – 22 September 1791, ed. Mark A. Mastromarino. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1999, pp. 294–299.]

[6] Tobias Lear to Mason Fenwick & Co, July 7, 1791. George Washington Papers, Series 2, Letterbooks 1754-1799: Letterbook 23, Aug. 26, 1790 – March 25, 1793. URL: https://www.loc.gov/item/mgw2.023/

 

George Washington’s Food Supply Ledger

January 20, 2017 Leave a comment
Invoice for 2 pipes of Madeira from John M. Pintard to George Washington, November 20, 1793. Library of Congress.

Invoice for 2 pipes of Madeira from John M. Pintard to George Washington, November 20, 1793. Library of Congress.

As today is the inauguration of the 45th President of the United States, I thought I would briefly focused on our first president George Washington.  George Washington’s Mount Vernon recently published a page from the Food Supply Ledger for the dates of May 19-25, 1794.  It is a fascinating, daily account with rows detailing the consumption of the Meats, Fish, Butter, Bread, Spices, Candles and of course Wines.

The wines are categorized as “Madeira”, “Claret”, “Champaign”, “Burgundy”, “Ven-de-Grave”, “Sauterne”, and “Sweet wine”.  On all but one day several bottles of Madeira were drunk.  In reviewing his wine orders it is possible to hazard a guess as to what type of Madeira was in those bottles.

The last Madeira order prior to May 1794, was acknowledged on November 20, 1793, when John Marsden Pintard, US Consul at Madeira, shipped “2 Pipes Old particular Madeira” at £38 Sterling each.  The pipes arrived via the sloop Lively at Philadelphia in January 1794.  We know from the Household Account Book that Joseph Sim was paid $484.59 for the two pipes on January 24, 1794.  The very next month on February 3, 1794, the final expense of $2 was paid for “putting in the Cellar”.

Madeira was classified according to quality with the best and most expensive being London Particular.  “Old particular” thus refers to London Particular most likely of two years of age.

 

“Sercial Sherman”: A look at the 1852 Sercial selected by General Sherman in 1871

January 12, 2017 Leave a comment

In December 1864, General William Tecumseh Sherman completed his “March to the Sea” which involved widespread devastation not just of military targets but also industrial and civilian property.  Having reached Savannah, Georgia, his troops turned towards the Carolinas with the intention of reaching Virginia.  Thus at the start of 1865, residents of Charleston, South Carolina took action as General Sherman’s army advanced.

Residents of Charleston were careful to hide and disperse their treasured Madeira collections to avoid consumption by General Sherman’s troops.  Bottles were hidden between rafters, demijohns were buried in the ground and for the South Carolina Jockey Club, the Madeira was hidden in the South Carolina State Hospital for the mentally ill.  The Jockey Club’s Madeira remained untouched but for some families their entire collection was lost.  One family sent eight wagon loads of Madeira nearly 200 miles from Charleston to Cheraw, near the North Carolina border.[1]  The Madeira was captured by General Frank P. Blair before it could be hidden.

General Blair served a few bottles of the captured Madeira to General Sherman who found them “very good”.  General Blair shared the story of its capture and eventually sent a dozen bottles “of the finest Madeira” General Sherman had ever tasted.  The rest of the Madeira was divided equally amongst the army.

Surviving stocks of 19th century American bottled Madeira are exceedingly rare.  It is ironic then, given the widespread disruption and consumption of Madeira by General Sherman’s army that one of his own bottles was served at The Sensational Sercial Tasting held last year.

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Labeled “1852 Sercial Selected By General Sherman On his visit at Madeira, 1871” this bottle was part of a parcel of three bottles acquired by Roy Hersh, For the Love of Port.  The paper-wrapped bottles were purchased from a family on Long Island who had owned them for three decades.  Two of the bottles were labeled as Sercial and one Navy Reserve.  There is no known documentation for these bottles and outside General Sherman’s comments on General Blair’s captured Madeira, he himself wrote nothing else about specific bottles of Madeira.

It was at a dinner in August 1871, with Admiral James Alden and General William W. Belknap, that General Sherman made plans to visit Madeira.[2]  Admiral Alden had been promoted to rear admiral in command of the Mediterranean Squadron.  As General Sherman had never been to Europe he agreed to accompany Admiral Alden on his journey to Spain.  They were to first stop at Madeira.

Admiral Alden was to take the screw frigate Wabash as his flagship.  She was being overhauled at the time.  With repairs complete she left the Boston Navy Yard on November 17, 1871. Just a few weeks later she approached Funchal under steam on December 5, 1871.[3]

USS Wabash. c 1871-1873. Image from Naval History and Heritage Command.

USS Wabash. c 1871-1873. Image from Naval History and Heritage Command.

General Sherman wrote very little of wine during his life and little of the “Celebrated Madeira Wine” during his visit as he described it.  His only descriptions of wine relate to the “[b]light destroy the grapes” some 20 years earlier.  He described how “New Vineyards are beginning to reproduce the Same wine”.

He accompanied Admiral Alden on their very first visit ashore which was to a “Mr Walsh’s house”, the Admiral having known him in “former years”.  It is Mannie Berk, The Rare Wine Co., who first suggested that General Sherman perhaps visited Mr. Welsh of the Madeira shippers Welsh Brothers and that perhaps our bottle came from the Welsh’s.[4]

Prior to the Oidium, or blight that General Sherman wrote of, the Welsh Brothers were focused on “cheap light Madeira”.[5]  This succeeded in this business becoming the largest Madeira shipper by 1849.  By 1881, their focused changed to sending the “more costly growths” mostly in bottle to the United States.

That our bottle came from the Welsh’s is corroborated by an article published in Harper’s Magazine during 1919 by Major Charles Wellington Furlong.[6]  Major Furlong was an American explorer and writer who traveled around the world.  This particular article of his describes a hunting trip he took with Charles B. Cossart, Harry Hinton, and Mr. Welsh Jr on a deserted island off of Madeira.

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On the last night of the hunt, the party celebrated with a meal of curried rabbit and goat-meat stew accompanied by a bottle of Madeira brought by Mr. Welsh Jr.  It was none other than “a bottle of Sercial wine of a vintage of seventy years.”  This dates the wine to 1849 which essentially matches the 1852 vintage of our bottle.  Mr. Welsh Jr. explained that wine was called “Sercial Sherman” because at Christmas time “General Sherman sent for four bottles, and since then his daughter has followed her father’s custom.”

It seems unequivocal that our 1852 General Sherman Sercial came from the Welsh Brothers.  It is also possible that the Madeira Wine Association (MWA), in part formed by Hinton and Welsh, marketed wine under the name “Sercial Sherman”.  Since this bottle is not labeled “Sercial Sherman” it is possible it was shipped during General Sherman’s lifetime which means it arrived in the United States between 1871 and 1891.


[1] Sherman, William Tecumseh.  “Memoirs of General William T. Sherman”, 1876.

[2] Ibid.

[3] General William Tecumseh Sherman to Thomas E. Sherman.  December 5, 1871. CSHR 9/59. Sherman Letters. University of Notre Dame. URL: http://archives.nd.edu/findaids/ead/index/fulltext/cshr9_59.htm

[4] See Mannie Berk’s background information on the wine in the Sensational Sercial tasting booklet. April 30, 2016.

[5] Vizetelly, Henry. Facts About Port and Madeira. 1880.

[6] Furlong, Major Charles Wellington. “Hunting With the Lords of the Dezertas” Harper’s Magazine, Volume 138. 1919.

The Sensational Sercial Dinner: 1875 through 2008

December 26, 2016 Leave a comment

I was careful to note I drank from a magnum of 1976 Lanson, Champagne and even took a picture of the bottle of 1996 Louis Roederer, Cristal Champagne and Jacque Selosse, V.O. Champagne Extra Brut. However, my tasting note for the 1998 Dom Perignon, Champagne “racy, yeasty, rich, mineral wine flavors” is unaccompanied by a picture. This might sound haphazard but Champagne is the first thing drunk after the all-day Sercial Madeira tasting. The need to refresh oneself with Champagne and talk to old friends leads to a sort of frenzy. Everyone jockeys for a pour of Champagne. It is not a time to take note.

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Dinner is seated, at a very long table. The pace of wine is measured by the sommeliers who impose a logical order on what is drunk. Every guest is encouraged to bring a magnum of mature wine or preferably two bottles of the same. This is not always possible so there is a large variety of red wines. I take pictures and jot down brief impressions so I may recall the evening later on. There were only two off bottles this night the 1959 Joh. Jos. Prum, Wehlener Sonnenuhr, feine Auslese, Mosel-Saar-Ruwer and 1978 Heitz, Cabernet Sauvignon, Martha’s Vineyard, Napa Valley. In Germany 1959 is a legendary vintage and in America both Joh. Jos Prum and Heitz Martha’s Vineyard are legendary wines. In some punishing coincidence a friend brought a bottle of 1975 Martha’s Vineyard to my house this year. It was off too. Damn and double damn.

Of the good wines, they fell into two camps. Those which are too young to follow a tasting of 19th century Madeira and those which are appropriately mature. In this latter category two particular bottles stand out: 1966 Chateau Ducru-Beaucaillou, Saint-Julien and 1875 Isaias W. Hellman, Angelica Wine, Cucamonga Vineyard, San Bernadino County. The 1966 Ducru sports a fantastic nose. I find some old wines have a sweaty aspect to their nose almost like aromatic umami and this bottle did as well. The flavors were equally attractive with that sweet concentration of flavor from age. It does not just taste mature, it tastes different.

My experience with Californian wine only includes vintages into the 1960s. I can assure you the last wine I would have expected at dinner was not just a pre-Prohibition Californian wine but one from the 19th century. In a particularly unforgiving act of arson in 2005, some 4.5 million bottles of wine were destroyed including 175 bottles of Hellman Angelica and Port wine, certainly most of the remaining stock. I can only imagine a handful of bottles survive to this day. Now scarcity alone does not make for a fine wine, what is in the glass does.  With a bit of volatile acidity and dust on the nose the 1875 Hellman may have given slight pause but in the mouth this is an unctuous, powerful, and mouth coating wine.  I managed to prolong the pleasure for a few more weeks because I was allowed to take the empty bottle home.  There was still damp sediment in the bottle so I stoppered it.  Every few days I would smell the bottle to swim once again in 19th century aromas.

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2002 Dauvissat, Chablis Grand Cru Le Clos
Imported by Vieux Vins. The yeasty nose makes way to minerally, white and yellow fruit flats. This seductive wine is rich with a hint of yeast, ripe tannins in the finish, and fat in the aftertaste.

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2008 Domaine Coche-Dury, Meursault
Alcohol 12.5%. This is a fresh, lean wine that tastes yeasty and older in the mouth. IT leans towards pure lemon flavors.

2007 Domaine Coche-Dury, Meursault
Alcohol 12.5%. This is a grippy, concentrated wine with fresh acidity. A little weight comes out with air but this is all about lemon tartness. To match the flavor is a fair amount of acidity.

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1959 Joh. Jos. Prum, Wehlener Sonnenuhr, feine Auslese, Mosel-Saar-Ruwer
Imported by O. W. Loeb & Co. Corked! D*mn!

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1970 Domaine Dujac, Gevrey-Chambertin Aux Combottes
Imported by Frederick Wildman. Alcohol 13%. The dark, garnet color matches the rather mature nose. In the mouth this is a very dry wine with old perfume mixing with linear, red fruit, The structure is still there, out living the fruit, as this gentle, old wine dries up.

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1967 Odero, Barolo
A Chambers Street Selection imported by T. Elenteny. The nose is a little stinky, which I find attractive, before aromas of candied cherry come out. This is old-school lively, with structure from the ripe tannins. Perfect for what it is.

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1961 Burlotto, Castello di Verduno, Barolo
The foxy, earthy flavors come with initial concentration. It is a dry wine offering more flavor than the Oddero. Maturity has brought old-school flavors, a sweet aspect, and earth. It wraps up with drying, textured tannins.

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1967 Cordezuma, Barolo
A Chambers Street Selection imported by T. Elenteny. The color is young, almost cranberry-ruby in color. In the mouth this is a simpler wine which is tart, citric, and bears less fruit.

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1981 Lopez de Heredia, Vina Tondonia, Rioja
An odd wine with almost mushroom flavors, yeast, and floral pork (WTF!). The acidity is bound up with the modest bit of structure.

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1990 Prunotto, Barbaresco Montestefano
Alcohol 13.5%. Tobacco. Young!

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1995 Guigal, Cote-Rotie La Landonne
A Thomas Gruenig Selection imported by Torion Trading Ltd. Alcohol 13%. This is way too young. Structure, drying, and bracing at this point.

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1995 Guigal, Cote-Rotie La Mouline
A Thomas Gruenig Selection imported by Torion Trading Ltd. Alcohol 13%. This is aromatic with a fine nose just beginning to take on mature aromas. In the mouth the red fruit is starting to soften a touch. Overall this is a focused wine with powerful structure through the fresh finish. Young.

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1989 Chateau Ducru-Beaucaillou, Saint-Julien
Imported by Johnston. Alcohol 12.5%. The mature Bordeaux notes are starting to escape but this is still so young.

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1989 Chateau Lynch Bages, Pauillac
Shipped by SDVF. Imported by South Wine & Spirits. Alcohol 12.5%. This is more open with cassis, minerals, and fat. Nice.

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1966 Chateau Ducru-Beaucaillou, Saint-Julien
Shipped by Raoul Lucien & Co. Imported by Combeau-Collet & Cie. Alcohol 12%. The fantastic nose is aromatic and a touch sweaty with cranberries and red fruit. It develops some old-school perfume. In the mouth the flavors have some sweetness to them before the drying finish. A lovely wine at 50 years of age.

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1966 Chateau Pichon-Longueville Baron, Pauillac
Shipped by A. de Luze & Fils. This is less giving, more linear, soon shutting down to simple, cranberry, and red fruit flavors. It is firm and tight in the mouth with a shorter finish.

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1978 Heitz, Cabernet Sauvignon, Martha’s Vineyard, Napa Valley
An off bottle.

1992 Harlan Estate, Cabernet Sauvignon, Napa Valley
Young and primary.

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1937 Niepoort, Colheita Port
Imported by W. J. Deutsch Co. Alcohol 19%. There is a sweet start with flavors of black tea and wood. There is a fair amount of noticeable acidity before the slightly harsh finish.

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1875 Isaias W. Hellman, Angelica Wine, Cucamonga Vineyard, San Bernadino County
Though there is some volatile acidity on the nose, it is fine and articulate, with a bit of dust matching its age. The fruit tastes so different. This is a powerful and lip coating wine which is still racy and sweet. The fruit persisted through the dark finish. With air this unctuous wine, with its plentiful residual sugar, builds glycerin and baking spices. In great shape!

Ricardo, the author, and Mannie

Ricardo, the author, and Mannie

“very Scarce” Sercial in America at the turn of the 19th century.

December 21, 2016 Leave a comment

On April 30, 2016, I attended The Sercial Tasting in New York City.  This was the fifth in a series of definitive annual Madeira tastings organized by Mannie Berk (The Rare Wine Co.) and Roy Hersh (For The Love of Port).  This post is the article I wrote for the tasting booklet.

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During the late 1700s and early 1800s, Madeira was typically ordered not by grape variety but by level of quality: from India and New York Market at the low end, to Old London Particular at the high end.

But it was always possible to buy a small barrel of single-varietal Madeira, especially Malmsey, Bual and Sercial. And for at least one early U.S. President, James Madison, Sercial was particularly prized.

Madison had developed a life-long love for Madeira, typically ordering the finest and oldest London Particular quality.  As Secretary of State under President Thomas Jefferson, he expanded upon his usual orders by purchasing a hogshead of Thomas Jefferson’s favorite Brazil quality Madeira.  When Madison became President after Thomas Jefferson in 1809, he purchased the remaining bottles of Jefferson’s Madeira that lay in the White House cellar.

But that wasn’t all he did to stock the White House cellar. Just one week into his Presidency, he placed an unusually large order of Madeira including old and new London Particular, Tinta or Madeira Burgundy, Malmsey, and Sercial.  The Sercial was the only type of Madeira in his order described as “very Scarce” and as such was shipped in a quarter-cask.  This is the first known order for Sercial amongst our Founding Fathers and one of the earliest in America.

Madison placed another order for Sercial a year later in 1810.  Still being scarce, it could only be sourced from the private stock of Count Joao de Carvalhal who was considered the richest man on Madeira with “the best plantations.”  Madison received his order the following year in 1811 and found the wine “very satisfactory.”

It is possible that Madison had to wait until he was President to afford Sercial.  The British Factory established the prices for all Madeira shipped from the island by British firms.  Madison paid £60 per pipe for old London Particular and the equivalent of £72 per pipe for Sercial.  A year later in 1811, the Factory maintained the price on London Particular but the price of Sercial rose to £94 per pipe. Sercial was the most expensive type of Madeira which could be purchased.

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Sercial was believed to stem from German vines at Hockheim and at times was called Madeira Hock.  It only grew well at particular locations and altitudes on Madeira.  Sercial was considered “superior to any dry wine, much esteemed on account of its scarcity and high flavor.”  It was, however, unpalatable when young, requiring six to eight years before becoming drinkable.  James Madison’s Sercial was seven years of age thus considered ready to drink.  If scarcity raised the price then the requirement for age drove it up even further.

Advertisements for Sercial in American first appear in 1799 when one butt was offered for private sale.  It is not until 1805 that Sercial was periodically advertised for sale.  These advertisements continue through the beginning of the War of 1812 between American and Great Britain.  It is possible the war prevented James Madison from placing a third order.  Sercial essentially disappears from advertisements until 1816 when trade largely resumed.  It now fetched a price of £100 per pipe.

James Madison’s Presidency lasted only one more year after the resumption of Madeira imports in 1816.  We do not know why Madison did not continue his orders for Sercial.  One possibility is that there was no affordable old Sercial to be had.  In a normal year it could be difficult for a shipper to obtain even just two or three casks.  In 1816, drinkable Sercial would have been from the 1809 or 1810 vintages.  These were amongst a run of four bad years.

Count João de Carvalhal was considered to have wines as fine as any other on the island.  In 1801, he purchased and developed the Palheiro estate in the hills near Funchal (and now owned by members of the Blandy family).  It is here that Count Carvalhal kept his store of wine.  When the Portuguese royal family moved back to Portugal from Brazil, a power struggle broke out.  The new governor of Madeira confiscated the Palheiro estate, sending some 700 pipes of Count Carvalhal’s old wine to Lisbon.

The Madeira of Carvalhal was soon to return to America.  “Carvalhal, vintage 1815, confiscated and sold under Don Miguel, in 1828” appears on wine lists and auction announcements beginning in the 1840s.  The most famous of all Carvalhal wines is the 1808 Lomelino Carvalhal Sercial.  This was the “highlight” of Sir Stephen Gaselee’s Madeira collection, bottles of which still survive to this day.

Incredibly, this vintage would have lain in Count Carvalhal’s cellar when James Madison’s Sercial orders were filled. It was not yet ready to drink so James Madison was sent the 1802 vintage.

“shipped by M. Pintard to the E. Indies in ’93”: George Washington’s India Madeira Wine

December 20, 2016 Leave a comment

With peace negotiated between America and Great Britain at the end of the Revolutionary War, George Washington resumed his habit of personally ordering his pipes of Madeira direct from the island.  Ten years later in 1793, during George Washington’s second term as President, he accepted the first of two orders for Madeira which traveled to India before making the long return journey to America.  Known as “India wine”, no other Founding Father received such Madeira.

Great Britain was already at war with France when the first pipe left Madeira.  With British money and ships spread thin, both in fighting wars and maintaining colonies in Asia, the British were weary for the Americans to resume their alliance with France.  As a result, the British tolerated American ships trading with their colonies in India.  It was to Calcutta, capitol of British India, that George Washington’s first pipe of “India wine” was destined for.

During the Revolutionary War, the international Madeira wine trade changed significantly.  When Madeira shipments to America plummeted, the Madeira houses sought to make up this deficit in part by expanding trade to India and China.  The share of Madeira sent to this eastern market rose to 40% of the entire trade.  During the ocean voyages the holds of these ships, with the pipes of Madeira inside of them, could reach temperatures as high as 120F.[1]  It was soon found that this India Madeira was favorably improved.

With the negotiation of peace in 1783, American merchants soon sent their ships to India after first making a stop at Madeira.  There were British and French colonies in India providing a ready market for the wines of Madeira.  The British East India Company carried pipes of Madeira in their own ships but the private American trade was tolerated.  On the day after Christmas, 1784, the first American ship to call on India arrived at Pondicherry.  She was the United States of Philadelphia, a small part of which was owned by the wealthy merchant Thomas Willing.  A decade later the firm of Willing & Francis was regularly trading between America, Madeira, and India.  Willing & Francis carried the second order of India Madeira for President George Washington and his Secretary of War Henry Knox.

George Washington’s First Order

Madeira. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division.

Madeira. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division.

There were different grades of Madeira and George Washington largely ordered the best and most expensive.  He was rather blunt often requesting “your very choicest (old) Madeira wine”.[2]  What he was sent was London Particular.[3]  This was the highest grade which was followed in decreasing quality and price by London Market, India Market, New York Market, and Cargo.  To ensure the quality of his wine George Washington ordered his pipes to be sent direct from Madeira.

On two occasions President George Washington received London Particular Madeira which had been sent to India and back.  The first order was set in motion during November 1793, when John Marsden Pintard wrote George Washington that he had shipped him one pipe of “very choice old wine” which would travel from Madeira to India then to Boston.[4]  The India Madeira was priced at £40 Sterling which made it more expensive than the “choice old wine” at £38 that John Marsden Pintard sent at the same time direct from the Island to America.  This new type of Madeira was no doubt rare at the time and distinct from the India Market quality. Neither Thomas Jefferson nor James Madison ever received India wine.[5]  John Marsden Pintard acknowledged this unusual order suggesting “Should you not think proper to take the pipe that is gone to India” then it could be sold to someone else.

The pipe John Marsden Pintard dispatched from Madeira was first destined for Benjamin Joy in India.  Benjamin Joy was a merchant from Massachusetts who was appointed US Consul at Calcutta in November 1792.  He received the pipe in November 1793 upon which he held on to it for he never had a safe opportunity to send it on to America.[6]  The East India Company was in effect the government in Calcutta.  In April 1794, they refused to recognize Benjamin Joy’s consulship but allowed him to continue business activities.  It was his health problems that eventually convinced him to return to Boston.  Benjamin Joy brought the pipe back to America by November 1795.

John Marsden Pintard

Lewis Pintard was based in Philadelphia where he imported Madeira wine.  His brother, John Marsden Pintard, nephew of Elias Boudinot, a former president of the Continental Congress, went to Madeira to set up a business during the fall of 1782. John Marsden Pintard soon became connected to the house of John Searle & Co on Madeira listing himself as “of the House” in his Application for Office of Commercial Agent in 1783.[7]  The Searles and Pintards were related by marriage and business.  John Searle’s son James Searle moved from Madeira to Philadelphia in 1762 and was importing wine by 1771.

The first American ship to visit India was the United States of Philadelphia.[8]  She had originally set sail for China but first stopped at Madeira in April 1783.  Trade with Madeira resumed after the Revolutionary War but a commercial treaty had not been established with Portugal.  As a result Congress had not appointed a commercial agent to Portugal.  Under Portuguese regulations a ship could only be cleared to depart with a visa from an agent or consul.  To do so the governor of the Madeira gave temporary commission to John Marsden Pintard.[9]  He noted this commission in a letter to the Secretary of Foreign Affairs and went on to become the US Commercial Agent to Madeira on October 31, 1783.

John Marsden Pintard boarded the United States within half an hour of it weighing anchor.[10]  He invited the Captain, Supercargo, and Surgeon to stay at the house of Searle where he resided.[11]  The director of the house convinced the captain that a better price would be obtained for any Madeira sold in India rather than China.  Some two weeks later the United States left Madeira for India with a cargo of 125 pipes of Madeira from John Searle & Co.   The Madeira was shipped on credit with a bill payable to Lewis Pintard.

The journey of the United States to Pondicherry and back to Philadelphia took an extraordinary long time with many lives lost to scurvy.  The majority owner of the United States was in financial difficulties thus could not pay the larger than expected wages of the seaman.  The Admiralty Court ordered the ship to be auctioned off.  As this could not satisfy all of the wages the cargo was sold too.  There was then the question of the debt to John Searle & Co which Lewis Pintard presented for payment.  With only one-fifth of the Madeira bill paid the matter was turned over to attorneys, the results of which are unknown.

John Marsden Pintard wrote Benjamin Franklin in 1784 that the house of John Searle & Co. had “Vast connections in the India trade”.[12]  In 1786, when the British East India Company looked for a Madeira supplier for their colonies in India, the house of John Searle & Co won the very first bid.  The Searle’s were extensively involved in the India Madeira trade.

George Washington first purchased a pipe of Madeira from John Searle of Madeira in 1763.[13]  One year later in 1764, George Washington requested one more pipe.[14]  It would be nearly 20 years later until John Searle would send more Madeira to George Washington.  Due to the news of peace between America and Great Britain, John Searle wrote George Washington on April 3, 1783, that he was “inform’d that choice Old Madeira are exceedingly Scarce & Dear in the United States”.[15]  A month later in May 1783, Lewis Pintard wrote to George Washington that he had received word of this shipment from his “relation” John Searle.  John Marsden Pintard, apparently learned by February 1786, that the Searle’s previously sent Madeira to George Washington, offered to send more.[16]  George Washington refused the offer being well-stocked since peace was established.[17]

John Marsden Pintard stayed as Commercial Agent until 1786.  Shortly before he returned to New York he offered to send a pipe of Madeira to George Washington.[18] It was received by August 1786.[19]  For the next several years he remained in the Madeira trade, periodically advertising pipes of Madeira for sale.

In 1787 and again in 1789, under the guise of the recently ratified Constitution, John Marsden Pintard continued his application to the Secretary of Foreign Affairs to become US Consul to Portugal.   He noted how he was associated with the only American house on Madeira.  He was appointed US Consul to Madeira in June 1790.  Once in Madeira he established the firm of Pintard, Weston & Co to sell and ship Madeira by the end of the year.[20]  In January 1791, he wrote Thomas Jefferson applying both for himself and his partner Samuel Weston for the Consular position in Lisbon.

That John Marsden Pintard decided to setup his own business could be due to the changing fortunes of the firm John Searle & Co which soon failed in 1792.  Peter Mondosa Drummond, Administrator at Madeira, was responsible for settling the affairs of the firm.  He advertised the failure of the firm in American newspapers during 1793 and 1794.[21]

George Washington’s Second Order

A Perspective View of Fort William, in the Kingdom of Bengal. 1760. Wikipedia.

A Perspective View of Fort William, in the Kingdom of Bengal. 1760. Wikipedia.

The second order for two more pipes of “India wine” was placed before George Washington’s first pipe ever arrived.[22]  It is unusual, for George Washington was ordering very expensive Madeira of a type which he had never tasted.  I have yet to find any correspondence with him describing the virtues of “India wine”.[23]  It seems that this order came about as the result of timing on two parts.

In 1793, France declared war against Great Britain.[24]  That same year the charter of the British East India Company was renewed guaranteeing Company control of all British ships trading between the Atlantic and Asia.  The Company set freight rates and the volume for private trade that could be shipped.  This was very expensive, so British merchants began to invest and trade using the American ships which traveled to the East Indies.

The British tolerated this trade because they did not want the Americans to reactivate their 1778 alliance with France.  In the Caribbean British privateers were seizing American ships as prizes.  Coupled with the presence of British occupied forts in America, the anti-British sentiment was high.  The Jay Treaty avoided war between Great Britain and America by recognizing American neutrality in the wars with France.  It also allowed formalized American trade to both the West and East Indies as well as negotiated a lower tariff paid to the Company for such trade.  The Treaty was negotiated in 1794 and passed by the Senate in June 1795.

Bartholomew Dandridge, George Washington’s secretary, heard that the firm of Willing & Francis of Philadelphia had outfitted the sloop Ganges for India trade.  Bartholomew Dandrige wrote John Marsden Pintard on April 14, 1795, that the sloop was to soon depart Philadelphia under Captain Tingey for the East Indies by way of Madeira .[25]  The proof of ownership for the ship Ganges was signed on May 2, 1795.[26]  The intent of Willing & Francis appears to trade with India under the protection of The John Jay Treaty.

John Marsden Pintard was directed to put two pipes of the best Madeira wine on the ship when it arrived at the Island.  The Ganges departed Madeira for Calcutta during the middle of July 1795.[27]  She departed Calcutta during February 1796[28] and after 92 days she returned to Philadelphia on June 1, 1796.[29]  George Washington kept his two pipes stored at the firm’s counting house.[30]  He had been advised that the wines would improve better there than in a cellar.[31]

The freight charges for the first India pipe was £15 compared to the £3 3s direct from Madeira.[32]  That made one pipe of India wine £55 compared to £39 13s.  The freight for the second two pipes came to just over £66 or £33 each.[33]  Thus these pipes of India Madeira cost a staggering £71 each, not regarding duties and drayage.

We now know that George Washington was not the only one to have an order of Madeira on the Ganges.  General Henry Knox, Secretary of War, also had two pipes.[34]  We know this for the unique coincidence that Mannie Berk, The Rare Wine Co., owns the bill of lading for General Knox’s pipes of India wine.  Dated July 16, 1775, John Marsden Pintard sent “Two cased pipes of Madeira Wine” with Captain Tingey of the Ganges to the East Indies and on to Philadelphia.

Invoice to General Henry Knox for Madeira wine from Willing & Francis. Dec 31, 1796. NYPL.

Invoice to General Henry Knox for Madeira wine from Willing & Francis. Dec 31, 1796. NYPL.

General Knox’s bill of lading can now be coupled with a bill for Madeira wine from Willing & Francis held by the New York Public Library.  Together, they shed new light on George Washington’s expensive India wine.  General Knox bill is dated December 31, 1776.[35]  It details that for those two pipes, the most expensive Madeira duties were paid at $0.56 per gallon for 391 gallons.

The freight for General Knox’s pipes was £20 each compared to £33 each for George Washington.  The former were simply “cased” whereas the later were in “dble cases”.[36]  In order to prevent the theft of such expensive wine, the pipes or casks themselves were often placed inside a larger wooden case.  George Washington was exceedingly cautious as he placed his Madeira inside two increasingly larger cases.  Madeira typically shipped in 110 gallon pipes.  Henry Knox’s single case raised the volume to approximately 196 gallons each.  George Washington’s double cases would have occupied over 320 gallons each.

George Washington was willing to pay such extraordinary prices not only because Madeira was “one of the most expensive liquors” but that old Madeira “is not to be had upon any terms”.[37]  Keenly aware of the scarcity of his India wine he instructed Oliver Wolcott Jr. to pay the duties “for the whole quantity” of the double cases rather “than have them uncased for the purpose of measuring the” present contents.[38]  He did not want to risk the wines being stolen or adulterated.

George Washington wanted his old Madeira “reserved..for my own use when I get home” as it was “not easy to be replaced”.  It was in March of 1797 that George Washington retired from his Presidency and returned to Mount Vernon.  According to his Household Account books, that very same month he paid Willing & Francis the duties on the two pipes of Madeira as well as the drayage.[39]  George Washington’s personal goods were shipped from Philadelphia to Mount Vernon so there is a bill of lading.[40]  It is noted in the margin, ”No. 21.22. Two pipes Meda. Wine not mentioned in the No. of Casks-“.[41]  George Washington brought his rare India wine back home to Mount Vernon.


[1] Hancock, David. “An Undiscovered Ocean of Commerce Laid Open”, The Worlds of the East India Company. 2002.

[2] “From George Washington to John Searle, 21 May 1783,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified October 5, 2016, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/99-01-02-11315. [This is an Early Access document from The Papers of George Washington. It is not an authoritative final version.]

[3] “To George Washington from John Searle, 15 July 1783,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified October 5, 2016, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/99-01-02-11598. [This is an Early Access document from The Papers of George Washington. It is not an authoritative final version.]

[4] “To George Washington from John Marsden Pintard, 20 November 1793,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified October 5, 2016, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-14-02-0267. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 14, 1 September–31 December 1793, ed. David R. Hoth. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2008, pp. 408–409.]

[5] I can find no advertisements for India Madeira during this period.

[6] Benjamin Joy to Bartholomew Dandridge, November 4, 1795.  George Washington Papers at the Library of Congress, 1741-1799: Series 4. General Correspondence. 1697-1799.

[7] George Washington Papers at the Library of Congress, 1741-1799: Series 7. Applications for Office. 1789-1796

Applications for Office, 1789-1796.  1783? URL: https://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=mgw7&fileName=gwpage122.db&recNum=1017

[8] The Beginnings of American Trade with India, 1784-1812 Author(s): Holden Furber Source: The New England Quarterly , Vol. 11, No. 2 (Jun., 1938), pp. 235-265 Published by: The New England Quarterly, Inc. Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/360708

[9] John Pintard. April 3, 1783. George Washington Papers at the Library of Congress, 1741-1799: Series 7. Applications for Office. 1789-1796. URL: https://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=mgw7&fileName=gwpage122.db&recNum=1019

[10] Postscripts to the Voyage of the Merchant Ship United States Author(s): William Bell Clark Source: The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography , Vol. 76, No. 3 (Jul., 1952), pp. 294-310 Published by: The Historical Society of Pennsylvania Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20088377

[11] Log and Journal of the Ship “United States” on a Voyage to China in 1784 Author(s): Samuel W. Woodhouse Jr. Source:   The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, Vol. 55, No. 3 (1931), pp. 225-258 Published by:  The Historical Society of Pennsylvania Stable URL:  http://www.jstor.org/stable/20086772

[12] John Marsden Pintard to Benjamin Franklin. May 16, 1784. Franklin Papers. URL: http://franklinpapers.org/franklin//framedVolumes.jsp?vol=41&page=605

[13] “From George Washington to Robert Cary & Co., 26 April 1763,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified December 6, 2016, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/02-07-02-0125. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Colonial Series, vol. 7, 1 January 1761 – 15 June 1767, ed. W. W. Abbot and Dorothy Twohig. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1990, pp. 202–205.]

[14] “From George Washington to John Searle, 30 January 1764,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified December 6, 2016, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/02-07-02-0171. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Colonial Series, vol. 7, 1 January 1761 – 15 June 1767, ed. W. W. Abbot and Dorothy Twohig. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1990, p. 285.]

[15] “To George Washington from John Searle, 3 April 1783,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified December 6, 2016, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/99-01-02-10986. [This is an Early Access document from The Papers of George Washington. It is not an authoritative final version.]

[16] “To George Washington from John Marsden Pintard, 24 January–5 February 1786,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified October 5, 2016, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/04-03-02-0444. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Confederation Series, vol. 3, 19 May 1785 – 31 March 1786, ed. W. W. Abbot. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1994, pp. 521–523.]

[17] “From George Washington to John Marsden Pintard, 20 May 1786,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified December 6, 2016, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/04-04-02-0071. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Confederation Series, vol. 4, 2 April 1786 – 31 January 1787, ed. W. W. Abbot. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1995, p. 67.]

[18] “To George Washington from John Marsden Pintard, 24 January–5 February 1786,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified October 5, 2016, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/04-03-02-0444. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Confederation Series, vol. 3, 19 May 1785 – 31 March 1786, ed. W. W. Abbot. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1994, pp. 521–523.]

[19] “From George Washington to John Marsden Pintard, 2 August 1786,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified October 5, 2016, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/04-04-02-0177. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Confederation Series, vol. 4, 2 April 1786 – 31 January 1787, ed. W. W. Abbot. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1995, pp. 188–189.]

[20] John M. Pintard to Tobias Lear. 19 January 1791. GLC02794.012  The Gilder Lehrman Collection, 1493-1859. URL: http://www.americanhistory.amdigital.co.uk/Documents/Details/John-M–Pintard-to-Tobias-Lear-regarding-invoice-for-Madeira-wine/GLC02794.012

[21] Date: Wednesday, April 23, 1794   Paper: American Minerva (New York, New York)   Volume: I   Issue: 118   Page: 3

[22] Bartholomew Dandridge to John M. Pintard, April 14, 1795. George Washington Papers at the Library of Congress, 1741-1799: Series 4. General Correspondence. 1697-1799.

[23]  There is however, reference to Madeira which went by way of China.  When George Washington complained in 1786 to Henry Hill about the cost of his Madeira from Lamar, Hill, Bisset & Co., Henry Hill responded that age is “essential to the perfection of an original good growth”.  However, the Madeira he tasted sent by John Searle & Co via China was “a mean one”.

[24] Chapter Title: The India Trade Book Title: So Great a Proffit Book Author(s): JAMES R. FICHTER Published by: Harvard University Press. (2010) Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt13x0k5c.11

[25] Bartholomew Dandridge to John M. Pintard, April 14, 1795.  George Washington Papers at the Library of Congress, 1741-1799: Series 4. General Correspondence. 1697-1799

[26] DS dated 2 May 1795. “proof of ownership of a ship or vessel.” Certifying ownership of the ship Ganges. Signed twice by Tingey. Naval History and Heritage Command. URL: https://www.history.navy.mil/research/library/manuscripts/t/thomas-tingey-letter-2-may-1795-ownership-of-ganges.html

[27] Date: Thursday, September 10, 1795   Paper: Philadelphia Gazette (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania)   Volume: XII   Issue: 2147   Page: 3

[28] Date: Wednesday, May 11, 1796   Paper: Aurora General Advertiser (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania)   Page: 3

[29] Date: Thursday, June 2, 1796   Paper: Claypoole’s American Daily Advertiser (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania)   Issue: 5350   Page: 2

[30] “From George Washington to Oliver Wolcott, Jr., 6 July 1796,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified December 6, 2016, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/99-01-02-00698. [This is an Early Access document from The Papers of George Washington. It is not an authoritative final version.]

[31] “To George Washington from Oliver Wolcott, Jr., 4 July 1796,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified December 6, 2016, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/99-01-02-00688. [This is an Early Access document from The Papers of George Washington. It is not an authoritative final version.]

[32] “To George Washington from John Marsden Pintard, 20 November 1793,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified December 6, 2016, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-14-02-0267. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 14, 1 September–31 December 1793, ed. David R. Hoth. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2008, pp. 408–409.]

[33] “To George Washington from Oliver Wolcott, Jr., 23 July 1796,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified December 6, 2016, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/99-01-02-00768. [This is an Early Access document from The Papers of George Washington. It is not an authoritative final version.]

[34] General Henry Knox was a prior customer of John Marsden Pintard.  See the correspondence at THE GILDER LEHRMAN INSTITUTE OF AMERICAN HISTORY.

[35] http://digitalcollections.nypl.org/items/4b568cc0-067a-0134-bd0a-00505686a51c#/?uuid=4b568cc0-067a-0134-bd0a-00505686a51c

[36] “From George Washington to Oliver Wolcott, Jr., 13 June 1796,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified December 6, 2016, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/99-01-02-00621. [This is an Early Access document from The Papers of George Washington. It is not an authoritative final version.]

[37] “From George Washington to William Pearce, 23 November 1794,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified October 5, 2016, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-17-02-0135. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 17, 1 October 1794–31 March 1795, ed. David R. Hoth and Carol S. Ebel. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2013, pp. 201–205.]

[38] “From George Washington to Oliver Wolcott, Jr., 13 June 1796,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified December 6, 2016, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/99-01-02-00621. [This is an Early Access document from The Papers of George Washington. It is not an authoritative final version.]

[39] Washington’s Household Account Book, 1793-1797 Author(s): Tobias Lear and  Bartholomew Dandridge Source: The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography , Vol. 29, No. 4 (1905), pp. 385-406 Published by: The Historical Society of Pennsylvania Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20085306

[40] “To George Washington from Tobias Lear, 20 March 1797,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified October 5, 2016, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/06-01-02-0029. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Retirement Series, vol. 1, 4 March 1797 – 30 December 1797, ed. W. W. Abbot. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998, pp. 37–39.]

[41] George Washington Papers at the Library of Congress, 1741-1799: Series 4. General Correspondence. 1697-1799

Tobias Lear to George Washington, March 20, 1797, with Shipping Report

“old wine of Lafitte”: George Washington’s order of 1786 Chateau Lafite

December 15, 2016 Leave a comment
Note the "L F G W" on the Invoice from Fenwick, Mason & Co to George Washington. March 28, 1791. LOC.

Note the “L F G W” on the Invoice from Fenwick, Mason & Co to George Washington. March 28, 1791. LOC.

In 1791, through the assistance of Thomas Jefferson, President George Washington placed a second order for claret from the firm of Fenwick, Mason & Co. in Bordeaux.[1]  The firm of had just been established three years earlier in Georgetown.[2]  Fenwick, Mason & Co. was a short-lived partnership between John Mason, the son of George Mason, along with John and James Fenwick.  That summer of 1788, John Mason traveled to Bordeaux bearing an introduction to Thomas Jefferson.

The order for the President’s wine included 14 cases for himself and 14 cases for Thomas Jefferson.  Though George Washington’s order also included Frontignac and Sauternes, it is the claret that is of interest for this post.

The firm of Fenwick, Mason, and & Co. wrote to Thomas Jefferson on February 10, 1791, that the Count de la Pallu, proprietor of the estate of Segur, which included Chateau Latour, had no wine that he could ship to President George Washington which would “do justice to his estate”.[3]  The firm offered to find a replacement which turned out to be “wines of Lafite, the Estate of Mr. Pichard (formerly Segur)”.[4] The cases of wine were received that summer in “good order” and placed in the cellar.[5]

Advertisement for 1786 Chateau Lafite and Chateau Latour. [8]

Advertisement for 1786 Chateau Lafite and Chateau Latour. [8]

There were some 5 cases of 48 bottles each of Chateau Lafite (then spelled Lafitte) from the vintage 1786.  This was considered “old wine”, not being of the current vintage, and was, perhaps, the best old vintage available.  In 1787, Thomas Jefferson wrote that the 1784 vintage was the best since 1779 when discussing Chateau Haut-Brion.[6]  This was most likely a generic vintage comment for the following year Thomas Jefferson ordered the 1784 vintage of Chateau Lafite but was told that none was left and was sent the 1786, though not yet ready to drink, instead.[7]

Sadly, we do not yet know what George Washington thought of the 1786 Chateau Lafite.  After the arrival of the cases, Tobias Lear wrote to George Washington in June 1791, that “how their contents are I know not. I intend, however, to have them examined to know whether they may be depended on or not.” [9]  The following month Tobias Lear followed up writing that “Of these wines none have yet been proved”.[10]  How the 1786 vintage stacks up remains a mystery!


[1] “To Thomas Jefferson from Fenwick, Mason & Co., 10 February 1791,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified December 6, 2016, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-19-02-0041. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 19, 24 January–31 March 1791, ed. Julian P. Boyd. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1974, pp. 266–267.]

[2] Whatford, Mark. “John Mason and the French Revolution”. July 18, 2013  Gunston Hall Blog.  URL: http://gunstonhallblog.blogspot.com/2013/07/john-mason-and-french-revolution.html

[3] “To Thomas Jefferson from Fenwick, Mason & Co., 10 February 1791,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified December 6, 2016, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-19-02-0041. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 19, 24 January–31 March 1791, ed. Julian P. Boyd. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1974, pp. 266–267.]

[4] “To Thomas Jefferson from Fenwick, Mason & Company, [29 March 1791],” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified December 6, 2016, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-19-02-0179. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 19, 24 January–31 March 1791, ed. Julian P. Boyd. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1974, p. 630.]

[5]  See “To George Washington from Tobias Lear, 12 June 1791,” Founders Online,National Archives, last modified December 6, 2016, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-08-02-0181. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 8, 22 March 1791 – 22 September 1791, ed. Mark A. Mastromarino. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1999, pp. 261–264.] and “From George Washington to Tobias Lear, 19 June 1791,” Founders Online,National Archives, last modified December 6, 2016, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-08-02-0193. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 8, 22 March 1791 – 22 September 1791, ed. Mark A. Mastromarino. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1999, pp. 275–278.].

[6] “From Thomas Jefferson to Francis Eppes, 26 May 1787,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified December 6, 2016, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-11-02-0362. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 11, 1 January–6 August 1787, ed. Julian P. Boyd. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1955, pp. 378–379.]

[7] “To Thomas Jefferson from John Bondfield, 19 April 1788,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified December 6, 2016, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-13-02-0019. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 13, March–7 October 1788, ed. Julian P. Boyd. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1956, p. 96.]

[8] Date: Tuesday, August 12, 1794 Paper: Philadelphia Gazette (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) Volume: XI Issue: 1813 Page: 2

[9] “To George Washington from Tobias Lear, 23 June 1791,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified December 6, 2016, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-08-02-0201. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 8, 22 March 1791 – 22 September 1791, ed. Mark A. Mastromarino. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1999, pp. 294–299.]

[10] Tobias Lear to Mason Fenwick & Co, July 7, 1791. George Washington Papers at the Library of Congress, 1741-1799: Series 2 Letterbooks. URL: