Home > History of Wine > “The Jefferson Wine of 1807” : Thomas Jefferson Madeira from the cellar of John Gadsby

“The Jefferson Wine of 1807” : Thomas Jefferson Madeira from the cellar of John Gadsby


This is the second of four posts about historic auctions of Madeira attributed to Thomas Jefferson.  In this post I focus on the lots of Thomas Jefferson Madeira that came from the cellar of John Gadsby.

Decatur House, 17 & H, [Washington, D.C.] c. 1918-1920. Library of Congress.

Decatur House, 17 & H, [Washington, D.C.] c. 1918-1920. Library of Congress.

John Gadsby was an Englishman who ran Gadsby’s Tavern in Alexandria, Virginia between 1796 and 1808. John Gadsby subsequently left Alexandria for Baltimore, Maryland, where he ran the Indian Queen Hotel.  Upon returning to Washington, DC in 1819 he subsequently ran the National Hotel, also known as Gadsby’s Hotel, from 1827 until his retirement in 1836.  He then purchased Decatur House on Lafayette Square where he lived until his death in 1844.

A selection of Madeira from the 1839 auction of John Gadsby's cellar. [2]

A selection of Madeira from the 1839 auction of John Gadsby’s cellar. [2]

On June 25, 1839, the extensive cellar of John Gadsby was put up for auction by D.C. & W. Pell at the City Hotel in New York City.[1]  The lots comprised some “10,000 bottles of choice wine, selected by Mr. John Gadsby, with great care, in the course of the last forty years.”  Two of the lots are of particular interest being first advertised on June 7, 1839, in New York[2]:

“MADEIRA – imported in 1807, to order, for Mr. Jefferson – Madeira from the well known house of Newton, Gordon, Murdock, & Co. imported by Messrs. McDonald & Ridgley, in 1803.”

The advertisements were to be run in Washington, DC, Baltimore, Philadelphia, Albany, New York City, and Boston.  Though only one lot is specifically attributed to Mr. Jefferson it is important to note the second lot for later discussion.  In the June 10, 1839, advertisement that ran in Washington, DC, the description of these lots is different[3]:

“Madeira imported to order, in 1807, for Mr. Jefferson.
Ditto from the well-known house of Newton, Gordon, Murdoch & Co. imported by Messrs. McDonald and Ridgely in 1803.”

The advertisements continue to appear in the days preceding the auction.  On June 20, 1839, there was a slight variation noting that the wines were selected by John Gadsby “of the last 30 years” instead of 40 years.[4]  The importation date of 1807 for the Jefferson Madeira was changed to 1809, “…Madeira, imported to order in 1809 by Mr. Jefferson; do from the well known house of Newton, Gordon, Murdock & Co. imported by Messrs. McDonald & Ridgely in 1803.”  The importation dates of 1809 and 1803 for the two lots are consistent in two advertisements simultaneously published in Washington, DC,[5] and New York City[6] on June 24, 1839.  A very small advertisement was also published in New York City stating “Some of it has been pressed from the grape for a period equal to the limit assigned to a man’s life – three score years and ten.-“[7]

Change in importation date from 1807 to 1809 for Thomas Jefferson's Madeira. [4]

Change in importation date from 1807 to 1809 for Thomas Jefferson’s Madeira. [4]

The newspaper advertisements for John Gadsby’s wines fall silent until after his death in 1844 when George White of Alexandria, Virginia, auctioned off “upwards of 4000 bottles of WINE, embracing a large variety of the choicest kinds, and aged from 25 to 50 years.”[8]  The auction took place on August 18, 1844.  The short list of wines is more detailed and includes two lots of Madeira specifically attributed to Thomas Jefferson:

Mark on Cork, O. M. Y. W. – Superior old Madeira, from Newton, Gordon, Murdock & Co., imported expressly for President Jefferson, in 1807, and bottled in 1811; bought by J. Gadsby in 1819.”

Mark on Cork, M Y. W. – Same as lot marked O. M. Y. W. but bottled in pint bottles.  The Jefferson Wine of 1807.”

On December 14, 1844, R. W. Dyer & Co. submitted an advertisement for an auction of the John Gadsby’s wine at the end of December 1844.  It included some 250 dozen bottles of wine to be auctioned off at Todd’s Rooms, Concert Hall on Pennsylvania Avenue.[9]  The more extensive list still included the two lots of Thomas Jefferson’s Madeira.  The auction was perhaps not much of a success because an advertisement for 250 dozen bottles including the Jefferson Madeira was resubmitted on December 30, 1844, for an auction on January 7, 1845.[10]

A selection of the wines advertised in 1844 from John Gadsby's cellar.  [8]

A selection of the wines advertised in 1844 from John Gadsby’s cellar. [8]

The remaining bottles of Jefferson Madeira must have sold at the January 7, 1845, auction for in the May 16, 1845, auction of John Gadsby’s wines by N. A. Thompson & Co. of Boston there is no mention of any Jefferson Madeira.[11]  This is confirmed by the August 14, 1845, advertisement by N. A. Thompson & Co. of which the 125 dozen bottles “being the balance of the stock of the late John Gadsby”[12] and the September 29, 1845, advertisement of 60 dozen remaining unsold bottles.[13]  George White still had some of the John Gadsby’s wine for on June 17, 1845, he advertised for “private sale a few dozen pint and quart bottles”.[14]  The following month on July 5, 1845, George White auctioned off “without reserve, to close sales, 15 dozen bottles, principally remnants…by the late John Gadsby”.[15]  Several years later 21 dozen bottles from John Gadsby’s cellar were auctioned on April 3, 1848, by A. Green at Brown’s Hotel on Pennsylvania Avenue.[16]  The Jefferson bottles are not included in the list.

It is unclear, based on the advertisements alone, how many different lots of Thomas Jefferson’s Madeira were sold at each of the four auctions in 1839, 1844, and 1845. The 1839 advertisements clearly list two different lots of Madeira one imported in 1807 or 1809 for Mr. Jefferson and a second of Newton, Gordon, Murdock, & Co. imported in 1803 by McDonald & Ridgley.  These advertisements were run while John Gadsby was still alive so it is reasonable to expect they are accurate.  As such they only describe one lot imported for Mr. Jefferson and if we assume the later date is correct, it was imported in 1809.   The 1844 and subsequent advertisements could have mixed the two 1839 lots such that there was a single lot of Newton, Gordon, Murdock & Co. imported for Thomas Jefferson.  If there was confusion about the lots this is counteracted by the change in importation date and increase in details for the description adds that the Madeira was bottled in 1811 and purchased by John Gadsby in 1819.  So it is possible that the 1839 lot is different than the 1844 and 1845 lots.  If that is the case then three different lots representing two types of Jefferson Madeira were auctioned off in New York City and Washington, DC.

Further details about the Gadsby lots remain thin.  Though auction catalogs were issued I have not yet been able to locate copies.  Dr. William Bushong of the White House Historical Association reports there are no catalogs in the Decatur House collection though they are aware of the auctions.[17]  Liz Williams of the Gadsby’s Tavern Museum was aware of the Jefferson bottles but also reports there are no catalogs in their collections.[18] In fact, she relates that there are but a few pieces of primary documentation related to John Gadsby.

Without the help of any diaries or ledgers belonging to John Gadsby, further information about the Jefferson Madeira could lie elsewhere.   Mannie Berk of The Rare Wine Co. suggested that orders could lie in the Newton, Gordon, Murdoch letter books in David Cossart’s possession.  Ann Berkes of the Thomas Jefferson Foundation could not find any records of Thomas Jefferson purchasing Madeira for the 1807 to 1809 timeframe.[19]  In fact the last payment she could find during his presidency occurred in June 1804, for a pipe of Madeira received on March 19, 1804.  The companies Newton, Gordon, Murdock, & Co. and McDonald & Ridgley do not appear in Jefferson’s Memorandum Books.[20]

During his presidency and afterwards Thomas Jefferson purchased a mixture of “genuine Madeira” and Sicily Madeira.[21]  He purchased his Madeira from the merchants Thomas Newton, Jr. and his son-in-law Thomas Newton of Norfolk.   Just days after Thomas Jefferson took office Thomas Newton wrote from Norfolk on March 12, 1801, that he had “old Madeira wines; Basil Quality & London Particular”.[22]  Thomas Jefferson responded with an order for one pipe of the Brazil quality.[23]  Later that year he acknowledged four more pipes of Brazil quality Madeira from James Taylor, Jr. of Norfolk.[24]  The taste for Brazil Madeira continued with two pipes received in March 3, 1803, and one pipe in March of 1804.[25]  Thus after purchasing eight pipes of Madeira in three years he appears to purchase no more Madeira.   On May 26, 1805, Thomas Newton wrote to Thomas Jefferson that “no wine having yet arrived I hardly believe any will, but should any arive, you can have what you please of it”.[26]  Thomas Newton continued that he could procure “as good wine & same kind” from London instead of the house in Madeira.

Thomas Jefferson's Madeira consumption from  Harper's New Monthly Magazine. 1885.

Thomas Jefferson’s Madeira consumption from Harper’s New Monthly Magazine. 1885.

In Thomas Newton’s March 12, 1801, letter he describes the Madeira as coming “from a Portugeze house; who ships my wine for drinking ” and that the “Brasil kind is superior to any other sent here & such as is seldom imported.”[27]  On April 8, 1801, he elaborates that “the Brasil wine is highly esteemd here, it is superior to the London particular, & shall send one of it. the latter is fine 3 years old & shiped (wracked off), by a Portugeze house in Madeira. you will find it clear, let the cask be ever so much shaked.”[28] In a letter dated May 13, 1801, Thomas Newton elaborates on the qualities of London Particular and Brazil.  The former was “also of good quality, & very proper for using at dinner & is cheaper, the Basil is a fit cordial after dinner, this is the custom here, as we consider, that wine of inferior quality while eating, is as good to the taste as best.”[29] It appears that the eight pipes of Brazil quality Madeira came from a single house in Madeira procured expressly by Thomas Newton, Jr. and Thomas Newton.

Thomas Newton introduced Thomas Jefferson to the Port and Bucellas wines of John F. Oliveira Fernandes of Norfolk.[30]  In a letter dated September 26, 1804, Thomas Newton described his friend Dr. Fernandes to James Madison.  He noted that Dr. Fernandes was of the “house Oliviera of Madeira” and was “pretty celebrated for shipping the best of Wines.”  Dr. Fernandes wrote to Thomas Jefferson on January 24, 1805, that he could provide wine from stocks in Norfolk or ship it from “Madeira, Lisbon or any port of Spain with wines of Supirior qualities to any imported into America-“.[31]  In an advertisement from September 4, 1804, Oliveira, Fernandes & Co. listed 3, 4, and 6 years old Brazil Wine, 3 year old London Particular, Last Vintage, London Market, East India Market, New York Market, and Malmsey.[32]  Despite the selection of Oliveira Madeira, Thomas Jefferson appears to have only ordered London Particular Port, 10 year old Bucellas[33], and Lisbon Malmsey.[34]

On June 29, 1808, Thomas Jefferson wrote of the “constant occasion for some of the strong, and dry, but sound and cheap wines, as well for the use of the kitchen at Monticello as to save the dear wines in calls from our neighbors for their families”.[35]  This type of cheap wine included “Sicily Madeira, dry Sherry, dry Lisbon, Teneriff, Vidona, &Fayal”.  One early order appears on April 11, 1806, when General Stevens shipped two quarter casks of “Sicilian Madeira” one of which was for Thomas Jefferson. [36] There appear no orders of Sicily Madeira until February 10, 1823, when Thomas Jefferson ordered a quarter-cask from Bernard Peyton.[37]   A few more orders follow such as when Bernard Peyton wrote from Richmond on April 19, 1824, that he had procured a quarter cask of “best Sicily Madeira Wine” which he sent by  wagon to Charlottesville.[38]  This was followed by a full cask later that November.[39]

It is unlikely that Thomas Jefferson sold any wine to John Gadsby.  The first seven pipes of Madeira were finished by November 25, 1807.[40]  The remaining 76 gallons from the fifth pipe were sent to Monticello.  This parcel of Madeira appears to have been finished by June 23, 1808, when Martha Jefferson Randolph wrote that “the madeira gave out before you left us there was no white wine therefore but what was in the octagon cellars.”[41]  The day the seventh pipe of Madeira was finished the eighth pipe was broached and to be bottled.[42]   It is possible that the remaining bottles from the eighth pipe lay at the President’s House upon Thomas Jefferson leaving office.  On April 19, 1809, Thomas Jefferson wrote to James Madison from Monticello.  In the letter he records selling a variety of items to James Madison including 100 bottles of Madeira, and 36 bottles of the liquor Noyau.[43]

List showing 100 bottles of Madeira sold to James Madison from Thomas Jefferson, 19 April 1809. [43]

List showing 100 bottles of Madeira sold to James Madison from Thomas Jefferson, 19 April 1809. [43]

It is interesting to note that John Gadsby had marked the corks of his Madeira and Sherry.  It is unclear if the marks were made by pen or branding.  I can find no other description of marked corks in other period American advertisements.  While the early marking of corks in America may be rare it could have been more common in Europe.  In researching for my Murder & Thieves series I came across early descriptions of marking corks and bottles in my sample set.  In 1762, Mr. Barnard was questioned about his wine specifically, “Was there any particular mark upon the corks or the bottles?”[44]  In 1780, John Ramsden commented at dinner that he had grabbed the wrong bottle from his cellar for, “the cork was wrote on, red wine”.[45]  John Gadsby and his family moved to America in the 1790s so perhaps he brought with him a habit acquired in England.  We do know that in James Madison’s account with Joel Barlow dated June 12, 1811, of the five different types of wine his 73 bottles of Clos de Vougeot were “marked on the cork”.[46]

The marks immediately caught the attention of Mannie Berk.  He believes the O. M.Y.B. refers to the Madeira shipper Murdoch, Yuille, Wardrop & Co. and that the “O” stands for “Old.”  The other lots have similar marking schemes such as “O. M. B.” for “Old Howard, March & Co.’s” and “O. S. Y.” for “old Schaffer & Young’s”.  Some lots were bottled prior to purchase by John Gadsby and others were explicitly bottled by John Gadsby.  With all of the advertised lots bearing marked corks it thus appears that these lots were re-corked at some point by John Gadsby perhaps after the first auction of 1839.

The 1844 and 1845 descriptions of these lots as coming from Newton, Gordon, Murdock & Co is somewhat confusing given the cork marks stood for Murdoch, Yuille, Wardrop, & Co.  In 1826 the company Murdoch, Yuille, Wardrop & Co discovered that Mr. Andrew Wardrop had taken out a personal bond against the company.[47]  As a result of this transgression Mr. Andrew Wardrop was released from the company which subsequently changed its name to Murdoch, Yuille, & Co in 1827.[48]  It is logical that if the bottle was corked prior to the name change a later description would bear a different name.  However, the advertised name of Newton, Gordon, Murdoch, & Co. is somewhat incorrect.  This name was used starting in 1834 having previous been Newton, Gordon, Murdoch, & Scott.[49]

James Madison was a fan of Madeira for not only did he purchase it from several merchants then store it in his attic [50] but his friends and family considered it his favorite wine.[51]  Like Thomas Jefferson, James Madison also purchased Madeira from Thomas Newton.  His order from August 5, 1803, was for a particular parcel of 5 year old Madeira which James Madison preferred to the Brazil Madeira.[52]   James Madison not only ordered from similar sources as Thomas Jefferson he also corresponded about Thomas Jefferson’s wine.   For example, in a letter from William Lee dated October 15, 1803, William Lee wrote that he had forwarded “some wine as also a quantity for the President both of which parcels I hope have arrived safe….I wish Sir you would have the goodness to mention to the President how mortified I am that his order has not been strictly complied with.”[53]  Another example occurs on December 14, 1804, when Chandler Price noted that the casks of wine which were shipped were marked “PX is for the President” and “M for Yourself.”[54]  It is reasonable then to explore the correspondence of James Madison to look for a connection to the Gadsby bottles.

Bill of lading for James Madison's 1807 shipment from Murdoch, Yuille, Wardrop, & co. [55].

Bill of lading for James Madison’s 1807 shipment from Murdoch, Yuille, Wardrop, & co. [55].

Although Thomas Jefferson appears to have never ordered Madeira from Murdoch, Yuille, Wardrop & Co. James Madison did.  In fact James Madison received two pipes in 1807 which matches the Gadsby advertisement.  James Madison received a letter from Murdoch, Yuille, Wardrop, & Co. dated January 10, 1807, which mentions “Agreeably to the directions of The Honble: Bushrod Washington” they had employed the the Schooner Three Sisters, Capt: Rich” to ship “Two Pipe’s of our finest old wine.”[55]  Bushrod Washington was apparently a fan of Murdoch, Yuille, Wardrop & Co for William Hodgson of Alexandria advertised on August 27, 1807, Madeira of “the same quality as they have for some years past sent to Judge Washington and others.”[56]  It is unlikely that Bushrod Washington imported for or gave Thomas Jefferson this Madeira for their only correspondence from 1807 regard medals of General Washington.[57]

The next month on March 13, 1807, John Price wrote James Madison that he certified the importation by “J Madison in the Three Sisters of Baltimore from Madeira one Pipe of Wine”.[58] This was detailed as “Madeira, Gall. 101”.  Perhaps the certification for the second pipe was lost. James Park then wrote to James Madison on the following day that the Three Sisters “has two pipes of Wine for you, addressed by Murdoch Yuille Wardrop & Co. to me by the direction of Judge Washington.”[59]  Of these two pipes one was sent to Fredericksburg and the other to James Madison by way of “the Alex. Packet Capt. Wilkison.”[60]  There appears to be no documentation as to what happened to these specific pipes.  It is possible the pipe sent to Alexandria made its way to James Madison in Washington, DC, and the pipe sent to Fredericksburg went to Montpelier.

It seems unlikely that any of the Murdoch, Yuille, Wardrop & Co. Madeira purchased by James Madison was destined for Thomas Jefferson.  There are no references to Thomas Jefferson in the correspondence unlike the combined shipment which occurred the month prior.  During the month of February both Thomas Jefferson and James Madison imported wine together on the Three Friends.   On February 13, 1807, Thomas Jefferson wrote Gabriel Christie, the Collector at Baltimore, that he “expected some wines, fruits Etc…by the American Schooner the Three friends.”[61]   On February 18, 1807, Gabriel Christie wrote to James Madison from Baltimore that the Schooner Three Friends had arrived “on Board of which is the Wines &ca which the Presidents and yourself have long expecting.”[62]  On February 24, 1807, Gabriel Christie wrote Thomas Jefferson that he had shipped “the goods which arrived for you in the Three Friends.”[63]

I cannot find any documentation that James Madison gave any wine to Thomas Jefferson.  He did insist on giving a cask of Madeira to Francis Corbin on May 28, 1817.[64]  He felt that after it settled “it will be fit for the Glass, or for the bottle if you prefer, as I do, that mode of compleating its flavor.”  In an earlier letter to Isaac Hite dated December 15, 1804, James Madison wrote, “In general, wine is said to attain its perfection best by lying 5 or 6 years in Cask, and then going into bottles and kept throughout in warm situations.”[65]  James Madison’s apparent preference for bottling time match John Gadsby’s lot having been imported in 1807 then bottled in 1811.  Nothing may be concluded from this but again, the coincidence is worth noting.

We know that James Madison purchased 100 bottles of Madeira which belonged to Thomas Jefferson.  It is not yet known if all of those bottles were consumed prior to the burning of the President’s House on August 24, 1814, but any remaining bottles most likely did not survive.  Dolley Madison wrote on August 23, 1814, that “I have pressed as many cabinet papers into trunks as to fill one carriage; our private property must be sacrificed.”[66]  Margaret Bayard Smith wrote of how little was saved from the President’s House and that the “wine, of which there was a great quantity, was consumed by our own soldiers.”[67]  We do know at least one demijohn of wine survived.  Dolley Madison wrote to Minerva Denison Rodgers during Sept-Dec 1814, that “to accept a dimijohn of pure wine saved from the P——s House the morning of its destruction.”[68]  Upon returning to Washington, DC, James Leander Cathcart brought with him “four Pipes of Wine between seven & ten years old, upon a supposition that your stock was burnt by the Goths, it is of an excellent quality”.[69] It appears that no bottle from this parcel of Jefferson Madeira would have survived past the burning and been available for auction at a later date.

There appears to be no documentation to tie Thomas Jefferson to any of the three lots of Madeira appearing at the auction of John Gadsby’s wine cellar.  It is possible that the 1839 Gadsby advertisement refers to Madeira shipped by Thomas Newton from an unspecified house.  However, there is no documentary evidence that Thomas Jefferson imported any Madeira in 1807 and 1809.  It is possible then that Thomas Newton brought in some Madeira which Thomas Jefferson declined to purchase.  Thomas Newton could have bottled it then sold it was being imported for Mr. Jefferson.  There is also no documentary evidence that Thomas Jefferson imported wine from Murdoch, Yuille, Wardrop, & Co. The description of the two pipes of wine purchased by James Madison provides the closest match.  This “old” wine and the shipper name thus match the “O.M.Y.W.” mark on John Gadsby’s corks as well as the importation date of 1807 given in the 1844 and 1845 auction advertisements.   Unfortunately there are no records indicating James Madison released some of this Madeira which was misattributed to Thomas Jefferson or if he gave any to Thomas Jefferson.


[1] Date: Monday, June 10, 1839          Paper: Daily National Intelligencer (Washington (DC), DC)   Volume: XXVII   Issue: 8212   Page: 2
[2] Date: Friday, June 7, 1839                Paper: Evening Post (New York, NY)   Issue: 11377   Page: 3
[3] Date: Monday, June 10, 1839          Paper: Daily National Intelligencer (Washington (DC), DC)   Volume: XXVII   Issue: 8212   Page: 2
[4] Date: Thursday, June 20, 1839        Paper: Commercial Advertiser (New York, NY)   Page: 2
[5] Date: Monday, June 24, 1839          Paper: Daily National Intelligencer (Washington (DC), DC)   Volume: XXVII   Issue: 8224   Page: 2
[6] Date: Monday, June 24, 1839          Paper: Commercial Advertiser (New York, NY)   Page: 2
[7] Date: Monday, June 24, 1839          Paper: Evening Post (New York, NY)   Issue: 11391   Page: 2
[8] Date: Wednesday, September 11, 1844        Paper: Alexandria Gazette (Alexandria, VA)   Page: 3
[9] Date: Tuesday, December 17, 1844               Paper: Daily National Intelligencer (Washington (DC), DC)   Volume: XXXII   Issue: 9931   Page: 1
[10] Date: Tuesday, January 7, 1845      Paper: Daily National Intelligencer (Washington (DC), DC)   Volume: XXXIII   Issue: 9948   Page: 1
[11] Date: Thursday, May 15, 1845        Paper: Boston Courier (Boston, MA)   Volume: XXII   Issue: 3104   Page: 3
[12] Date: Thursday, August 14, 1845                   Paper: Boston Courier (Boston, MA)   Page: 3
[13] Date: Monday, September 29, 1845             Paper: Boston Courier (Boston, MA)   Page: 3
[14] Date: Tuesday, June 17, 1845         Paper: Alexandria Gazette (Alexandria, VA)   Page: 1
[15] Date: Friday, July 4, 1845                Paper: Alexandria Gazette (Alexandria, VA)   Page: 3
[16] Date: Sunday, April 2, 1848            Paper: Daily Union (Washington (DC), DC)   Page: 3
[17] Per email correspondence January 28, 2014.
[18] Per email correspondence January 28, 2014.
[19] Per email correspondence January 14, 2014.
[20] Per email correspondence January 16, 2014.
[21] “From Thomas Jefferson to William Short, 30 August 1806,” Founders Online, National Archives (http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/99-01-02-4221, ver. 2013-12-27). Source: this is an Early Access document from The Papers of Thomas Jefferson. It is not an authoritative final version.
[22] “To Thomas Jefferson from Thomas Newton, 12 March 1801,” Founders Online, National Archives (http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-33-02-0218, ver. 2013-12-27). Source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 33, 17 February–30 April 1801, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2006, p. 258.
[23] “From Thomas Jefferson to Thomas Newton, 23 March 1801,” Founders Online, National Archives (http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-33-02-0359, ver. 2013-12-27). Source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 33, 17 February–30 April 1801, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2006, pp. 420–421.
[24] “From Thomas Jefferson to James Taylor, Jr., 18 December 1801,” Founders Online, National Archives (http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-36-02-0087, ver. 2013-12-27). Source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 36, 1 December 1801–3 March 1802, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2009, p. 163.
[25] I did not find references to these three pipes on Founders Online so refer to Gabler, James M. Passions The Wines and Travels of Thomas Jefferson.  See also Hailman, John. Thomas Jefferson on Wine.
[26] “To Thomas Jefferson from Thomas Newton, 26 May 1805,” Founders Online, National Archives (http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/99-01-02-1786, ver. 2013-12-27). Source: this is an Early Access document from The Papers of Thomas Jefferson. It is not an authoritative final version.
[27] “To Thomas Jefferson from Thomas Newton, 12 March 1801,” Founders Online, National Archives (http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-33-02-0218, ver. 2014-05-09). Source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 33, 17 February–30 April 1801, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2006, p. 258.
[28] “To Thomas Jefferson from Thomas Newton, 8 April 1801,” Founders Online, National Archives (http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-33-02-0483, ver. 2013-12-27). Source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 33, 17 February–30 April 1801, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2006, pp. 554–555.
[29] “To Thomas Jefferson from Thomas Newton, 13 May 1801,” Founders Online, National Archives (http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-34-02-0079, ver. 2013-12-27). Source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 34, 1 May–31 July 1801, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007, p. 106.
[30] “From Thomas Jefferson to John F. Oliveira Fernandes, 4 January 1805,” Founders Online, National Archives (http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/99-01-02-0947, ver. 2013-12-27). Source: this is an Early Access document from The Papers of Thomas Jefferson. It is not an authoritative final version.
[31] “To Thomas Jefferson from John F. Oliveira Fernandes, 24 January 1805,” Founders Online, National Archives (http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/99-01-02-1032, ver. 2013-12-27). Source: this is an Early Access document from The Papers of Thomas Jefferson. It is not an authoritative final version.
[32] Date: Tuesday, September 4, 1804               Paper: Norfolk Gazette and Publick Ledger (Norfolk, VA)   Page: 3
[33] “To Thomas Jefferson from John F. Oliveira Fernandes, 24 January 1805,” Founders Online, National Archives (http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/99-01-02-1032, ver. 2013-12-27). Source: this is an Early Access document from The Papers of Thomas Jefferson. It is not an authoritative final version.
[34] “To Thomas Jefferson from John F. Oliveira Fernandes, 30 December 1806,” Founders Online, National Archives (http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/99-01-02-4774, ver. 2013-12-27). Source: this is an Early Access document from The Papers of Thomas Jefferson. It is not an authoritative final version.
[35] “From Thomas Jefferson to George Jefferson, 29 June 1808,” Founders Online, National Archives (http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/99-01-02-8239, ver. 2013-12-27). Source: this is an Early Access document from The Papers of Thomas Jefferson. It is not an authoritative final version.
[36] “From Thomas Jefferson to George Jefferson, 11 April 1806,” Founders Online, National Archives (http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/99-01-02-3549, ver. 2013-12-27). Source: this is an Early Access document from The Papers of Thomas Jefferson. It is not an authoritative final version.
[37] “From Thomas Jefferson to Bernard Peyton, 10 February 1823,” Founders Online, National Archives (http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/98-01-02-3320, ver. 2013-12-27). Source: this is an Early Access document from The Papers of Thomas Jefferson: Retirement Series. It is not an authoritative final version.
[38] “To Thomas Jefferson from Bernard Peyton, 19 April 1824,” Founders Online, National Archives (http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/98-01-02-4202, ver. 2013-12-27). Source: this is an Early Access document from The Papers of Thomas Jefferson: Retirement Series. It is not an authoritative final version.
[39] “To Thomas Jefferson from Bernard Peyton, 15 November 1824,” Founders Online, National Archives (http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/98-01-02-4688, ver. 2013-12-27). Source: this is an Early Access document from The Papers of Thomas Jefferson: Retirement Series. It is not an authoritative final version.
[40] “Jefferson’s Financial Diary”, Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, Volume 9. URL: http://books.google.com/books?id=nVIFAAAAQAAJ&pg=PP53#v=onepage&q&f=false  Also see Curtis, William Eleroy. The True Thomas Jefferson. 1901. URL: http://books.google.com/books?id=pX92AAAAMAAJ&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q&f=false
[41] “To Thomas Jefferson from Martha Jefferson Randolph, 23 June 1808,” Founders Online, National Archives (http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/99-01-02-8206, ver. 2014-02-12). Source: this is an Early Access document from The Papers of Thomas Jefferson. It is not an authoritative final version.
[42] Hailman, John R. Thomas Jefferson on Wine.
[43] Per email correspondence January 16, 2014, and “Thomas Jefferson to James Madison, 19 April 1809,” Founders Online, National Archives (http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/03-01-02-0126-0001, ver. 2013-12-27). Source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Retirement Series, vol. 1, 4 March 1809 to 15 November 1809, ed. J. Jefferson Looney. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2004, pp. 154–156.
[44] Old Bailey Proceedings Online (www.oldbaileyonline.org, version 6.0, 17 February 2013), February 1762, trial of Mary Sherman (t17620224-4).
[45]  Old Bailey Proceedings Online (www.oldbaileyonline.org, version 6.0, 17 February 2013), September 1780, trial of MARY BRITTLE GEORGE PARSONS (t17800913-89).
[46] “Account with Joel Barlow, 12 June 1811 (Abstract),” Founders Online, National Archives (http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/03-03-02-0395, ver. 2014-05-09). Source: The Papers of James Madison, Presidential Series, vol. 3, 3 November 1810–4 November 1811, ed. J. C. A. Stagg, Jeanne Kerr Cross, and Susan Holbrook Perdue. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1996, p. 340.  See the original document at URL: http://memory.loc.gov/master/mss/mjm/13/0300/0380d.jpg
[47] Reports from Committees.  URL: http://books.google.com/books?id=EaZbAAAAQAAJ&pg=PR1#v=onepage&q&f=false
[48] London Gazette, Issue 18357 published on the 1 May 1827. Page 8 of 24 URL: http://www.london-gazette.co.uk/issues/18357/pages/968
[49] Cossart Gordon & Cie : Ile de Madère : maison fondée en 1745 : la plus ancienne et la plus grande maison d’exportation de vins de Madère. Cossart, Gordon & Cie. Londres : J. Causton et fils, [1874?]
[50] “From James Madison to Isaac Hite, 15 December 1804,” Founders Online, National Archives (http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/02-08-02-0403, ver. 2014-02-12). Source: The Papers of James Madison, Secretary of State Series, vol. 8, 1 September 1804 – 31 January 1805 and supplement 1776 – 23 June 1804, ed. Mary A. Hackett, J. C. A. Stagg, Mary Parke Johnson, Anne Mandeville Colony, Angela Kreider, Jeanne Kerr Cross, and Wendy Ellen Perry. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2007, p. 381.
[51] Mary Estelle Elizabeth Cutts Memoir II, [1849-1856], Cutts Family Collection of Papers of James and Dolley Madison, Library of Congress, Washington, DC. MRD-S 23538
[52] “From James Madison to Thomas Newton, Jr., 5 [August] 1803,” Founders Online, National Archives (http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/02-05-02-0296, ver. 2014-02-12). Source: The Papers of James Madison, Secretary of State Series, vol. 5, 16 May–31 October 1803, ed. David B. Mattern, J. C. A. Stagg, Ellen J. Barber, Anne Mandeville Colony, and Bradley J. Daigle. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 2000, pp. 280–281.
[53] “To James Madison from William Lee, 25 October 1803,” Founders Online, National Archives (http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/02-05-02-0582, ver. 2014-02-12). Source: The Papers of James Madison, Secretary of State Series, vol. 5, 16 May–31 October 1803, ed. David B. Mattern, J. C. A. Stagg, Ellen J. Barber, Anne Mandeville Colony, and Bradley J. Daigle. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 2000, pp. 575–577.
[54] “To James Madison from Chandler Price, 14 December 1804,” Founders Online, National Archives (http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/02-08-02-0399, ver. 2014-02-12). Source: The Papers of James Madison, Secretary of State Series, vol. 8, 1 September 1804 – 31 January 1805 and supplement 1776 – 23 June 1804, ed. Mary A. Hackett, J. C. A. Stagg, Mary Parke Johnson, Anne Mandeville Colony, Angela Kreider, Jeanne Kerr Cross, and Wendy Ellen Perry. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2007, p. 378.
[55] “To James Madison from Murdoch Yuille Wardrop and Company, 10 January 1807,” Founders Online, National Archives (http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/99-01-02-1271, ver. 2013-12-27). Source: this is an Early Access document from The Papers of James Madison. It is not an authoritative final version.
[56] Date: Thursday, August 27, 1807                   Paper: Alexandria Advertiser (Alexandria, VA)   Volume: VII   Issue: 20 “From Thomas Jefferson to Bushrod Washington, 25 October 1807,” Founders Online, National Archives (http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/99-01-02-6654, ver. 2014-02-12). Source: this is an Early Access document from The Papers of Thomas Jefferson. It is not an authoritative final version.03   Page: 1
[57] For example see “From Thomas Jefferson to Bushrod Washington, 25 October 1807,” Founders Online, National Archives (http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/99-01-02-6654 [last update: 2014-12-01]). Source: this is an Early Access document from The Papers of Thomas Jefferson. It is not an authoritative final version.
[58] “To James Madison from John Price, Jr., 13 March 1807,” Founders Online, National Archives (http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/99-01-02-1499, ver. 2014-02-12). Source: this is an Early Access document from The Papers of James Madison. It is not an authoritative final version.
[59] “To James Madison from Andrew Parks, 14 March 1807,” Founders Online, National Archives (http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/99-01-02-1503, ver. 2014-02-12). Source: this is an Early Access document from The Papers of James Madison. It is not an authoritative final version.
[60] “To James Madison from Andrew Parks, 26 March 1807,” Founders Online, National Archives (http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/99-01-02-1547, ver. 2014-02-12). Source: this is an Early Access document from The Papers of James Madison. It is not an authoritative final version.
[61] “From Thomas Jefferson to Gabriel Christie, 13 February 1807,” Founders Online, National Archives (http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/99-01-02-5081, ver. 2014-02-12). Source: this is an Early Access document from The Papers of Thomas Jefferson. It is not an authoritative final version.
[62] “To James Madison from Gabriel Christie, 18 February 1807,” Founders Online, National Archives (http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/99-01-02-1423, ver. 2014-02-12). Source: this is an Early Access document from The Papers of James Madison. It is not an authoritative final version.
[63] “To Thomas Jefferson from Gabriel Christie, 24 February 1807,” Founders Online, National Archives (http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/99-01-02-5151, ver. 2014-02-12). Source: this is an Early Access document from The Papers of Thomas Jefferson. It is not an authoritative final version.
[64] “From James Madison to Francis Corbin, 28 May 1817,” Founders Online, National Archives (http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/04-01-02-0051, ver. 2013-12-27). Source: The Papers of James Madison, Retirement Series, vol. 1, 4 March 1817 – 31 January 1820, ed. David B. Mattern, J. C. A. Stagg, Mary Parke Johnson, and Anne Mandeville Colony. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2009, pp. 52–53.
[65] “From James Madison to Isaac Hite, 15 December 1804,” Founders Online, National Archives (http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/02-08-02-0403, ver. 2013-12-27). Source: The Papers of James Madison, Secretary of State Series, vol. 8, 1 September 1804 – 31 January 1805 and supplement 1776 – 23 June 1804, ed. Mary A. Hackett, J. C. A. Stagg, Mary Parke Johnson, Anne Mandeville Colony, Angela Kreider, Jeanne Kerr Cross, and Wendy Ellen Perry. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2007, p. 381.
[66] August 23, 1814. URL: http://www2.vcdh.virginia.edu/madison/exhibit/washington/letters/082314.html
[67] Smith, Margaret Bayard. The First Forty Years of Washington Society. 1906. URL: https://books.google.com/books?id=xOwMAAAAIAAJ&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q&f=false
[68] Dolley Payne Todd Madison to Minerva Denison Rodgers, [September–December 1814] . The Dolley Madison Digital Edition. UVA Rotunda website.
[69] “To James Madison from James Leander Cathcart, 7 August 1815,” Founders Online, National Archives (http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/99-01-02-4563, ver. 2014-02-12). Source: this is an Early Access document from The Papers of James Madison. It is not an authoritative final version.

  1. Jill Barth
    February 9, 2015 at 5:10 pm

    Thanks for such a complete summary of this interesting exchange.

  1. March 2, 2015 at 9:01 am

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