Archive

Archive for December, 2014

Father Christmas with a cup of Wassail

December 24, 2014 Leave a comment

Here is an image of Father Christmas raising a cup of Wassail with Twelfth Cake, Plum Pudding, Roast Beef, and Hot Elder Wine arrayed before him. Behind him are bogies, spirits, a snap dragon, and a couple under the mistletoe.  Albeit odd but certainly interesting!

"A Merry Christmas". Browne, Hablot Knight. 1815-1882.  [1]

“A Merry Christmas”. Browne, Hablot Knight. 1815-1882. [1]


[1] “A Merry Christmas”. Browne, Hablot Knight. 1815-1882.  The British Museum. URL: http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/collection_online/collection_object_details.aspx?assetId=300677&objectId=743388&partId=1

“A great field is open for the wine-grower in the vicinity of Washington”: The brief success of Azadia Vineyard in Washington, DC 1863-1869

December 24, 2014 1 comment

It was purported that experienced horticulturalists saw the hills of Washington, DC, as favorable to the cultivation of a vineyard and the production of “native wine”.[1]  This was still regarded as theory when Dr. John B. Keasbey (1833-1886) began experimenting at his Azadia Vineyard.  Dr. John B. Keasbey was a surgeon in the Union Army, surgeon of the Metropolitan Police[2] and a professor of “obstetrics and diseases of women and children” at the Columbian College in Washington, DC.[3]  His interests extended beyond medicine for he cultivated a 10 acre vineyard from which he made wine.[4]  His property was located in a hilly area on Rock Creek Road north of Pierce’s Mill on the way to Tenleytown.  As I have written before in “Cultivated with so much success”: The Vines and Vineyards of Washington, D.C. 1799-1833 there were both nurseries and vineyards in this area since the turn of the century.   While the cultivation of vines in Washington was in no way theoretical by the 1860s, there are but few accounts of the production of a significant quantity of wine since John Adlum.

The American Farmer: Devoted to Agriculture, Horticulture and Rural Life. 1867. URL: https://books.google.com/books?id=e19TAAAAYAAJ&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false

The American Farmer: Devoted to Agriculture, Horticulture and Rural Life. 1867. URL: https://books.google.com/books?id=e19TAAAAYAAJ&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false

The majority of the Azadia Vineyard was set out in 1863. The vines were planted with a southern exposure on diverse soils that were mainly sandy, gravelly soils of decomposed granite.  In 1865 Dr. Keasbey was able to sell $500 worth of grapes and in 1866 he not only sold grapes but also made 1,300 gallons of wine.  By 1868 he sent bottles of “’American Burgundy’ (dark)” to New York where, when tasted blind, were thought to be “a fine sample of French Burgundy.”  Other samples that were tried by local “connoisseurs” caused surprise for their “fine quality.”  He produced at least two types of wine, the Burgundy made from the Concord variety and a “heavy red wine” made from Norton’s Virginia.  Unfortunately, I cannot find any reports of the “American Burgundy” in New York newspapers.

Topographical sketch of the environs of Washington, D.C.  Michler, N. 1871. URL: http://www.loc.gov/item/87693316/

Topographical sketch of the environs of Washington, D.C. Michler, N. 1871. URL: http://www.loc.gov/item/87693316/

Azadia Vineyard produced both grapes for the table and for wine making.  It was regarded as an experiment so “almost every known variety of grape” could be found “including the hybrids.”  Both of these products had potential for profit because table grapes had a market in New York and the wines could be a “formidable competitor” to  those of the west.  The “early grapes” ripened around August 15 which was one week earlier than in New York and one month earlier than in the west.  This meant the grapes could briefly command the highest prices before massive amounts arrived from the west.  The Concord grapes were shipped by steamer in 20 pound boxes and the Delaware grapes were sent by express in one to two pound boxes.  The Concord proved most profitable earning $0.14 to $0.25 per pound.

Mildew was a significant problem and the aversion of it was one focus of Dr. Keasbey’s experiments.  It was believed that mildew could be averted by preventing “too rapid radiation under the sun” or simply keeping the dew off of the vines.  With that goal in mind, Dr. Keasbey tried at least three different methods.  He employed trellises holding hardier vines trained to have foliage over the weaker vines.  This showed some success.  Dr. Keasbey also used a method invented by Mr. Sanders, Superintendent of the Propagation Garden near the U.S. Capitol.  This involved attaching a shed roof on top of the trellises.  The protected vines showed more success than the foliage method.  The greatest success came from the smallest trial in a field of vines.  A single sash of unpainted glass was suspended over two or three vines.  Like an open-air hot-house this is similar to a method that was often employed in England.

Dr. John B. Keasbey was not just tending his own vineyard and producing wine, he was selling grapevines as well.  Several advertisements appear during the years 1866[5] through 1869.[6]  He advertised stock for Adirondac, Delware, Concord, Iona, Rogers Hybrids 1,2,4,5,7,9,15,22,30,33, and Salem.  One advertisement alone listed 30,000 Concord grapevines 1 and 2 years of age.  Sold in groups of 1,000 it appears that Dr. Keasbey planned to operate in the three areas of propagation, table grapes, and wine.

Topographical sketch of the environs of Washington, D.C. Michler, N. c. 1901. URL: http://www.loc.gov/item/87693341/

Topographical sketch of the environs of Washington, D.C. Michler, N. c. 1901. URL: http://www.loc.gov/item/87693341/

Despite the early success of the Azadia Vineyard accounts fall silent after 1869 with no apparent explanation.  During the summer of 1871, Dr. Keasbey advertised his country residence “Dunbarton Hall” for sale.[7]  This is not to be confused with Dumbarton Oaks.  The Dunbarton property contained about 23 acres of land of which 7 acres were bearing grapes.  I wonder if the acreage of the vineyard reduced from 10 to 7 acres due to attrition from experimentation.  We do not yet know why his property with the Azadia Vineyard was put up for sale.  Perhaps work took him elsewhere or that the death of his daughter just a few months after birth prompted him to leave.  Whatever the reason, the listings continued to point out the “Seven Acres In Splendid Grapes” through 1875.  Whether the vineyard survived after this date is not known.  The death of Dr. Keasbey in 1883 and the purchase of Dunbarton Hall in 1887 by William K. Ryan certainly gives closure.[8]


[1] Native Wines. Date: Tuesday, April 7, 1868                 Paper: Evening Star (Washington (DC), DC)   Page: 2
[2] Boyd, Andrew. Boyd’s Washington and Georgetown Directory. 1864. URL: https://openlibrary.org/books/OL25514389M/Boyd’s_Washington_and_Georgetown_directory
[3] Advertisement. Date: Friday, October 13, 1865         Paper: Daily National Intelligencer (Washington (DC), DC)   Volume: LXV   Issue: 16584   Page: 4
[4] Grape Culture Near Washington. Date: Tuesday, October 8, 1867         Paper: Alexandria Gazette (Alexandria, VA)   Volume: LXVIIII   Issue: 232   Page: 2
[5] The Country Gentleman, Volumes 27-28. 1866. URL: https://books.google.com/books?id=ieMxAQAAMAAJ&pg=PR1#v=onepage&q&f=false
[6] The Cultivator & Country Gentleman, Volume 33. 1869. URL: https://books.google.com/books?id=-S0_AQAAMAAJ&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q&f=false
[7] Date: Monday, April 3, 1871           Paper: Evening Star (Washington (DC), DC)   Page: 2
[8] Date: Saturday, July 9, 1887            Paper: Evening Star (Washington (DC), DC)   Page: 8

Good Cheer For Christmas (1903)

December 23, 2014 1 comment

1903_12_18_pl_012232014_0917_31983_654


[1] Date: Friday, December 18, 1903 Paper: Evening Star (Washington (DC), DC) Page: 5

Mature Chapoutier and Turley with young Dirty & Rowdy

December 23, 2014 1 comment

A recent evening tasting wine with Lou proved to be rather interesting. I do not recall ever tasting Hermitage blanc so I was completely surprised that the 2000 Chapoutier, Chante-Alouette, Hermitage Blanc continued to develop the entire evening.  While it was always balanced it became more expressive on the nose and in the mouth.  I usually save my leftovers for the next day but Jenn and I just had to finish it up when I returned home.  If you open a bottle then double-decant it at least one hour ahead.  Also interesting was the bottle of 2000 Turley, Zinfandel Juvenile.  I would not think a high-alcohol Zinfandel could develop gracefully past 10 years of age.  This one did.  I would not say it developed any distinctive bottle aged flavors, rather it was youthful in a manner that belied its age.  We finished up with a pair of Mourvedre from Dirty & Rowdy.  The 2011 Dirty & Rowdy, Mourvedre, Shake Ridge Ranch, Amador County was a bit more robust and expressive, though the flavors waxed and waned.  Though familiar on the nose the 2013 Dirty & Rowdy, Mourvedre, California Familiar proved to be a younger, lighter, and acidity driven relative.  Not surprising given the change in fruit source and the inclusion of some Petite Sirah.  My feelings oscillated but the wine did grow on me.  In the end I felt it just needs some time.  What really matters is that the 2000 Chapoutier rocked and the 2000 Turley was an outright tasty wine to drink.

WithLou1

2000 Chapoutier, Chante-Alouette, Hermitage Blanc –
Imported by Ginday Imports.  This wine is 100% Roussanne.  Alcohol 11-14%.  The wine was a gold color.  With air aromas of toast came out.  The wine itself became rounder, riper, and weightier throughout the entire evening.  There was a lovely, exotic mouthfeel with green herbs and eventually an interesting masa with fruit flavor.  It had attractive glycerin and a flavorful aftertaste.  **** Now-2020.

WithLou2

2000 Turley, Zinfandel Juvenile –
This wine is 100% Zinfandel sourced from young vines on estate vineyards.  It was aged in 20% new oak.  Alcohol 15.2%.  The color was a light to medium garnet.  The nose was grapey and meaty with some prune aromas.  In the mouth the wine was very fruity before linear flavors of black fruit and lively young acidity came out.  The wine was balanced, though you could work out some heat, and quickly took on a little ripe texture and tannins in the finish.   With air the wine took on more grapey fruit, rosemary notes, and a powdery ripe aftertaste.  *** Now-2019.

WithLou3

2011 Dirty & Rowdy, Mourvedre, Shake Ridge Ranch, Amador County –
This wine is 100% Mourvedre from two blocks of young vines that was aged for four months in neutral oak.   Alcohol 13.4%.  There was an enjoyable nose of gentle potpourri and red fruit aromas.  In the mouth were forward, grainy fruit flavors that were tart, black, and acidity driven.  After the start the wine fleshed out a bit in the middle but dropped off in the finish before resuming in the aftertaste.  The wine became more floral with air, showing pepper, black fruit, and greenhouse flavors.  It even took on notes of polished wood and vintage perfume.  *** Now-2018.

WithLou4

2013 Dirty & Rowdy, Mourvedre, California Familiar –
This wine is a blend of 93% Mourvedre and 7% Petite Sirah that was whole cluster fermented using indigenous yeast.  Alcohol 13.2%.  Familiar in the nose but certainly different.  There were tart red and black fruit that had a more carressing feel.  The wine was cleaner and lighter on its feet with cranberry acidity and a moderate amount of citric tannin that were still young.  **(*) 2015-2019.

WithLou5

Three wines from New Mexico, Mexico, and Greece

December 22, 2014 1 comment

One really should be curious when it comes to trying wines.  We bought the 2009 Gruet Winery, Pinot Noir, New Mexico several years ago after trying an even older, well-preserved example. It may seem surprising at first to find Pinot Noir in New Mexico but do remember that Gruet is famous for their sparkling wines, of which Pinot Noir plays a part.  Our bottle showed a lot of oak influence on the nose followed by primary cherry fruit in the mouth.  This is a solid drinking wine that would be great fun to serve blind at the beginning of a tasting or dinner.   From Mexico, the latest vintage of 2010 L.A. Cetto, Petite Sirah, Valle de Guadalupe, Baja California offered solid, modern flavors of dense black fruit.  This bottle took a few days to show well which is not surprising given the grape variety.  Again, not a mind-blowing wine but another fun wine to serve blind.  I would personally be curious to see how it tastes several years from now.  The 2012 Aivalis Wines, Agiorgitiko, Nemea offers plummy, dry, and powerfully structured flavors.  The wine is a bit disjointed right now so stick it in the cellar for a year or two.  It you must try a bottle now (and most likely in the future) then be sure to accompany it by a big hunk of meat.  The L.A. Cetto and Aivalis wines were purchased at MacArthur Beverages.  The Gruet was purchased at the winery.

Misc2

2009 Gruet Winery, Pinot Noir, New Mexico –
This wine is 100% Pinot Noir that was aged for 16+ months in oak barrels.  Alcohol ?%.  The color was a medium+ red cherry with some garnet.  There were good wood aromas on the notes, some sweet spices, and leather.  In the mouth were cherry fruits in this balanced wine.  The flavors were simple and shorter though the wine has kept well.  Eventually a fruity blue and red core came out.  No need to hold on but will last for years to come.  ** Now-2017.

Misc1

2010 L.A. Cetto, Petite Sirah, Valle de Guadalupe, Baja California – $10
Imported by International Spirits & Wines.  Alcohol 13.5%.  There were low-lying heady aromas of tart fruit.  In the mouth were dense, inky flavors, some ripe, powdery tannins, and fruit that turned blacker. Needs a little time in the cellar.  *(*) 2015-2018.

Misc3

2012 Aivalis Wines, Agiorgitiko, Nemea – $16
Imported by Dionysos Imports.  This wine is 100% Agiorgitiko that was fermented in stainless steel then aged for 12 months in 30% new and 70% used French oak barrels.  Alcohol 14%.  The nose remained plummy.  In the mouth were plummy, black fruit flavors that were dry.  The acidity was salivating at first then dry, dark tannins came out towards the finish.  The structure is rather strong in comparison to the fruit.  The finish bore dark fruit that seemed separate from the structure in the end.  Needs time to integrate.  *(*) 2016-2019.

Misc4

When vineyards were just miles from the U.S. Capitol: The wine houses of Washington, DC, 1880-1910

December 19, 2014 3 comments

A day trip to Virginia wine country is an increasingly popular activity for those who live in the greater Washington, DC, area.  A century ago residents did not need to travel so far to drink the local wine.  As late as 1910, people would ride three to four miles north of downtown to one of several wine houses.  This area was known as Washington County and was less developed with estates and farms.  It is here that many wine houses were located near what is now the Old Soldier’s Home and Catholic University of America.

B.H. Warner & Co.'s Map showing a bird's-eye view of the city of Washington and suburbs. 1886. Library of Congress Geography and Map Division. URL: http://www.loc.gov/item/87693417/

B.H. Warner & Co.’s Map showing a bird’s-eye view of the city of Washington and suburbs. 1886. Library of Congress Geography and Map Division. URL: http://www.loc.gov/item/87693417/

The higher elevation of this area was known for its commanding views of the city and cooler temperatures.   It is perhaps due to these qualities that this area had been home to vineyards since the beginning of the 19th century.  Samuel Harrison Smith had a vineyard on his property at Harewood Road and Bunker Hill Road from at least 1816 into the 1830s.  Thomas Mustin cultivated Pleasant Hill Vineyard near Rock Creek Church into the early 1830s.  John Agg’s estate, adjoining the Military Asylum or Soldier’s Home as it was later named, was known as The Vineyard from the 1850s through the 1880s.[1] Thomas Brown’s property was put up for auction in 1877.[2]  Located along Rock Creek Church Road near the Soldier’s Home it contained “a fine vineyard, in good bearing order, and is in a good state of cultivation”.  There was also the five room building “known as the ‘Wine House’”.

Overview showing relationship of Brightwood, Soldier's Home, and Catholic University. Image from Baist's real estate atlas of surveys of Washington, District of Columbia. 1903. Library of Congress. URL: http://www.loc.gov/item/87675190/

Overview showing relationship of Brightwood, Soldier’s Home, and Catholic University. Image from Baist’s real estate atlas of surveys of Washington, District of Columbia. 1903. Library of Congress. URL: http://www.loc.gov/item/87675190/

Wine houses were places to drink homemade wine on private property.  These properties all contained vineyards from which the fruit was gathered to make the wine.  Wine houses typically operated without a license because it was commonly believed that selling the wine from their own grapes was exempted by the law.  Wine houses that were located within one mile of the Soldier’s Home were eventually outlawed from selling intoxicating wine but could sell “unfermented wine”.  One motivation for this law might be found in the case of the old soldier Alexander Irving.  He spent much of his time drinking at the nearby wine house of Mary Haberman.[3]  One day he kept drinking until he was “suddenly ill and dropped dead.”  The coroner certified that he drunk himself to death.

Soldiers' Home, Washington. c 1898. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division. URL: http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2008678220/

Soldiers’ Home, Washington. c 1898. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division. URL: http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2008678220/

There were several wine houses within one mile of the Soldier’s Home, such as that of Agnes Helm[4], Allright’s[5], and Frederick Rose[6].  Technically the wine was to be unfermented but accounts of intoxication and the increasing attention from the police suggest otherwise.  For example, in 1895 three young men had spent the afternoon “wine drinking” at a wine house.[7]  They boarded the electric car at Brightwood near the Soldier’s Home and got into an altercation with the motorman.  The young men were fined and the judge stated that intoxicated people from wine houses and speak easies “made electric car traveling uncomfortable”.  A year later, Frank Ward had been drinking wine at Allright’s wine house on Rock Creek Church road.[8]  He left intoxicated and was last seen leaning against a lamp post as the electric street car was arriving.  He spontaneously fell on the tracks in front of the car and was killed.

Street car, Washington, D.C. c 1890. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division. URL: http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2001706113/

Street car, Washington, D.C. c 1890. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division. URL: http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2001706113/

Rosie’s Wine House appears to have been the most notorious of them all.  Rosie Arnold or “Miss Rosie” was the “fair waitress” who served those who visited “the wine-house” on Shepherd Road near Brightwood.[9]  Though the wine house was owned by Theresa Arnold it was the daughter Rosie who was known to all.  The Arnolds were a German family.  Their house was located on a hill whose side was covered with a vineyard.  It is from this vineyard that the grapes were sourced for the wine served at the house.  They produced 15 to 20 barrels of red wine annually once described as “sparkling fluid”.[10]  It is this wine that landed Rosie Arnold in court during November 1889 for the house had never held a license.  The Arnold’s believed they did not need a license since the wine was manufactured on site.  Despite two police officers testifying that a pitcher of the wine had no intoxicating effects, Rosie Arnold was fined and ordered to apply for a license.[11]

This was the first of several court appearances.  During the summer of 1892 the charge of running a “disorderly house” was dropped[12] but was followed in the fall with a fine for selling wine on the Sabbath.[13]  Rosie Arnold must have been so well known that the court mistakenly assumed she owned the “Wine House” and had to file a second charged against the true owner, her mother Theresa Arnold.[14]

Theresa and Rosie Arnold were not the only wine-house keepers that appeared in court.  Henri Schreider advertised for a young German woman to do work at the Wine House, Rock Creek Church Road near the Soldier’s Home on April 10, 1888.[15]  Later that summer Henry Schreider, proprietor of the wine house, was charged with being an unlicensed liquor dealer for selling wine made from grapes on his property.[16]  The charges were dismissed by the claim that the grape juice was simply allowed to clear for two or three days before being cured with sugar and barreled.

It was generally believed as late as 1893, that a wine house could sell wine manufactured from the vineyard on the property without license but it could not sell other intoxicating drinks.  The court was aware that wine houses were sourcing fruit from other vineyards.  One judge reported he “had seen wagon loads of basket of grapes going out the road”.  Indeed the Virginia grape grower J.H. Gray of Falls Church, Fairfax County reported in 1880 that he and other growers sold fruit to a “wine establishment” in Washington.[17]  The rate was $3 per 100 pounds delivered to the “wine house”.

There were rising complaints against the wine houses by the citizens and the superintendent of the Brightwood schools.  The Temperance Union applied pressure as well.[18]  By 1894 the view had changed and the Court found a wine house could not dispense the wine it manufactured for consumption on the premises without a license.[19]  With this in mind along with the successful prosecution of Theresa Arnold, “’Wine House’ Keeper” Frederick Rose of Glenwood Road was fined as well.

Location of Frederick Rose's property. Image from Baist's real estate atlas of surveys of Washington, District of Columbia. 1903. Library of Congress. URL: http://www.loc.gov/item/87675190/

Location of Frederick Rose’s property. Image from Baist’s real estate atlas of surveys of Washington, District of Columbia. 1903. Library of Congress. URL: http://www.loc.gov/item/87675190/

Frederick Rose was a native of Germany who enlisted in the Union Army and served throughout the Civil War.[20]  He returned to Washington in 1865 after which he established a restaurant and wine house near the entrance of the Soldier’s Home.  With passage of the one-mile law, Frederick Rose moved his wine house to his property right near the entrance of Catholic University on Lincoln Avenue between Eckington and Brookland.[21]  He used part of his land as a vineyard which supplied his business for nearly twenty years.  He did a “flourishing” business until the electric street car line on 4th Street was abandoned.  His volume of business fell, he became despondent and ended his life during the fall of 1903.

During the fall of 1894 the elderly Theresa Arnold was back in court.[22]  Though a policeman had testified her wine was not intoxicating, chemical analysis proved it contained 9% alcohol.[23]The charges and fines continued for the Arnold family over the next decade.  Eventually a change in the law allowed the police to arrest Theresa Arnold.  She was charged and arrested at the age of 72 for selling wine in quantities of less than five gallons to be drunk on the premises.[24]  It was testified that her wine was the strength of “ordinary claret” for which she had to move and quit the business.[25]

Despite the arrest of Theresa Arnold, Rosie Arnold maintained the business.  Its popularity continued for in one advertisement a young man listed his address as “near Rose’s Wine House”.[26]  The wine house must have operated under a license because there are no more accounts of court proceedings.  Instead there are reports of an 80 year old veteran of the Civil War found dead in his room at the Wine House in 1909.[27] The last mention comes during 1910 when a group of 500 Russians held a picnic at the “Arnold’s wine house”.[28]  One year later Theresa Arnold passed away and accounts of Rose’s Wine House disappear from the papers.[29]  I suspect one of the last vineyards of Washington, DC, disappeared as well.


[1] Date: Wednesday, May 7, 1856     Paper: Daily National Intelligencer (Washington (DC), DC)   Volume: XLIV   Issue: 13656   Page: 1
[2] Date: Saturday, August 4, 1877      Paper: Evening Star (Washington (DC), DC)   Page: 3
[3] Date: Friday, July 16, 1880              Paper: Evening Star (Washington (DC), DC)   Page: 4
[4] Date: Monday, July 18, 1881           Paper: Evening Star (Washington (DC), DC)   Page: 4
[5] Date: Friday, April 7, 1893               Paper: Evening Star (Washington (DC), DC)   Page: 9
[6] Date: Friday, July 27, 1894              Paper: Evening Star (Washington (DC), DC)   Page: 3
[7] Date: Friday, May 31, 1895             Paper: Evening Star (Washington (DC), DC)   Page: 12
[8] Date: Friday, April 7, 1893               Paper: Evening Star (Washington (DC), DC)   Page: 9
[9] Date: Wednesday, November 20, 1889        Paper: Evening Star (Washington (DC), DC)   Page: 5
[10] Date: Saturday, October 22, 1892                Paper: Evening Star (Washington (DC), DC)   Page: 15
[11] Date: Monday, November 25, 1889             Paper: Evening Star (Washington (DC), DC)   Page: 8
[12] Date: Monday, July 25, 1892         Paper: Evening Star (Washington (DC), DC)   Page: 5
[13] Date: Tuesday, October 4, 1892  Paper: Evening Star (Washington (DC), DC)   Page: 10
[14] Date: Saturday, October 22, 1892                Paper: Evening Star (Washington (DC), DC)   Page: 15
[15] Date: Tuesday, April 10, 1888       Paper: Evening Star (Washington (DC), DC)   Page: 2
[16] Date: Tuesday, June 26, 1888        Paper: Evening Star (Washington (DC), DC)   Page: 3
[17] McMurtrie, William. Report Upon Statistics of Grape Culture and Wine Production in the United States for 1880. 1881. URL: https://ia601602.us.archive.org/26/items/reportuponstatis36mcmu/reportuponstatis36mcmu.
[18] Date: Monday, May 15, 1893        Paper: Evening Star (Washington (DC), DC)   Page: 9
[19] Date: Friday, July 27, 1894             Paper: Evening Star (Washington (DC), DC)   Page: 3
[20] WINE DEALER ENDS HIS LIFE: Frederick Rose Fires Fatal Pistol Shot in … The Washington Post (1877-1922); Sep 2, 1903; ProQuest Historical Newspapers: The Washington Post (1877-1997) pg. 4
[21] Date: Tuesday, September 1, 1903              Paper: Evening Star (Washington (DC), DC)   Page: 3
[22] Date: Wednesday, December 12, 1894      Paper: Evening Star (Washington (DC), DC)   Page: 11
[23] NINE PERCENT ALCOHOL.: Mrs. Teresa Arnold’s Wine Was Adjudged of Intoxicating Strength. The Washington Post (1877-1922); Dec 12, 1894; ProQuest Historical Newspapers: The Washington Post (1877-1997) pg. 2
[24] Date: Thursday, October 27, 1904               Paper: Evening Star (Washington (DC), DC)   Page: 15
[25] LIQUOR CASES DISPOSED OF.: Fine Imposed in One and Charges Dismissed in Two Others.
The Washington Post (1877-1922); Dec 9, 1904; ProQuest Historical Newspapers: The Washington Post (1877-1997) pg. 12
[26] Date: Saturday, February 11, 1905               Paper: Evening Star (Washington (DC), DC)   Page: 12
[27] FINDS AGED LODGER, DEAD.: Attendant at First Thinks Octogenarian Is Asleep. The Washington Post (1877-1922); May 8, 1909; ProQuest Historical Newspapers: The Washington Post (1877-1997) pg. 14
[28] ENJOY BREAKING UP PICNICS.: Police Accuse Set of Negroes With Har- rassing Foreigners. The Washington Post (1877-1922); Aug 4, 1910; ProQuest Historical Newspapers: The Washington Post (1877-1997) pg. 14
[29] Date: Sunday, March 5, 1911        Paper: Evening Star (Washington (DC), DC)   Page: 5

The 2nd Battalion of the Regiment of Cuba posing with some wine, c. 1895-1898.

December 17, 2014 Leave a comment

This photograph shows 16 soldiers of the 2nd Battalion of the Regiment of Cuba standing in a semicircle.  With rifles stacked up against each other in two groups, the men are at ease with musical instruments, two dogs, and at least one bottle of what appears to be red wine.

Escribientes y ordenanzas del 2º Batallón del Regimiento de Cuba. Biblioteca Digital Hispanica. [1]

Escribientes y ordenanzas del 2º Batallón del Regimiento de Cuba. Biblioteca Digital Hispanica. [1]


[1] Escribientes y ordenanzas del 2º Batallón del Regimiento de Cuba. Circa 1895-1898? ID # bdh0000052950. Biblioteca Digital Hispanica. URL: http://bdh.bne.es/bnesearch/detalle/bdh0000052950