Archive for December, 2013

Alternatives to the Champagne Saber

December 31, 2013 Leave a comment

The widespread consumption of Champagne during the holiday season has led to an increase in posts about sabering Champagne.  These posts usually feature an explosive video and perhaps a link to purchase an official sabre à champagne.  There are alternative instruments for performing sabrage as I discovered while rummaging through the kitchen of an in-law in Albuquerque.  As it is not yet New Year’s this post is merely inspiration.  I shall aim for action pictures later on.


The smallest instrument is a hatchet purchased in Ketchikan, Alaska.  It is made from a two-man crosscut logging saw.  It is quite light so anyone can yield it.  The short length of the blade makes it good for crowded parties.


The best balance between weight and rusticity appears in the broad axe with poll purchased in St. Jacobs, Ontario.  With one forceful motion the wide edge is guaranteed to hit the lip of the bottle and the weight of the blade will carry your arm forward.


The most impressive blade is the hand-made meat cleaver from St Petersburg, Russia.  The blade is massive with weight to carry through any large piece of meat or small animal.  In fact the blade is so massive it dwarfs the standard bottle size and changes my posture.  It must be used on larger bottles for fear of losing fingers.


Categories: Image

“Choice old Madeira”: The Early Vintages of Philadelphia

December 30, 2013 1 comment

Madeira was often described as “Choice old Madeira” in advertisements dating back to 1739[1].  Some parcels were listed as “good old Madeira WINE.”[2]  There was typically no inclusion of a vintage date so what was meant by “old” is unknown.  One advertisement of July 1766, implied the vintage by detailing parcels which were three years old, two years old, and “of the last Vintage.”[3]  Curious about what was meant by “old” and the specific vintages imported, in this post I take a brief look at the advertisements for madeira in Philadelphia during the 18th century.

Vuë de Philadelphie. Leizelt, Balthasar Friedrich. 1770s. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division.

Vuë de Philadelphie. Leizelt, Balthasar Friedrich. 1770s. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division.

One of the first advertisements for a specific vintage of madeira appears in February 1759 when Bayton and Wharton advertised a “Choice Parcel of Madeira WINE” from the 1756 vintage.[4]  A little over one year later a parcel of the 1757 vintage was listed as “fine old Madeira Wine”.[5]  This wine was imported by the ship Two Brothers, Captain Neil and sold by Henry and Robert Ritchie.  Henry Lisle sold 1764 madeira in pipes, hogsheads, and quarter-casks on April 24, 1766.[6]  Willing and Morris imported “a very large stock of Madeira, Teneriffe, and Mountain wines, and Claret” which they advertised for sale that summer on June 26, 1766.[7]  The madeira was of the 1763 vintage.  It is possible these wines came from Bristol for “good bottled Bristol beer” was listed as well.  The following year they sold lots of the 1763 vintage of “London market Madeira wines.”[8]

The 1763 vintage was also available that same year at the store of Joshua Howell.[9]  His advertisement of January 15, 1767, described this “neat genuine Madeira Wine” as “fit for immediate Use.”  Later that year on June 11, 1767, Ritchie and Clymer still had some stock of the 1762 vintage.[10]  Neave and Harman sold multiple vintages of “choice old Madeira WINES” from 1763, 1764, and 1765.[11]

Despite the profusion of madeira advertisements the number which specified the vintage date appears to thin out after 1767.  This may be attributed to the series of low yields between 1668 and 1772 when they fell “to one-third of their usual output.”[12]  Ten pipes of 1765 madeira “of best Quality, and warranted Genuine” were advertised on July 21, 1768.  On May 16, 1771, Willing and Morris once again advertise madeira of “London market quality” from the vintage 1766.[13]  Thus, in the years prior to the Revolutionary War the vintages of 1756 through 1766 were sold in Philadelphia.  From these advertisements the implication is that “old” parcels were at least two years of age.

[1] Paper: Pennsylvania Gazette, published as The Pennsylvania Gazette; Date: From April 5, to April 12, 1739; Issue: 539; Page: [4]; Location: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
[2] Paper: Pennsylvania Gazette; Date: 02-28-1765; Page: 3; Location: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
[3] Paper: Pennsylvania Gazette, published as The Pennsylvania Gazette; Date: 07-24-1766; Issue: 1961; Page: [1]; Location: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
[4] Paper: Pennsylvania Gazette, published as The Pennsylvania Gazette; Date: 02-15-1759; Issue: 1573; Page: [2]; Location: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
[5] Paper: Pennsylvania Gazette, published as The Pennsylvania Gazette; Date: 04-03-1760; Issue: 1632; Page: [5]; Location: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
[6] Paper: Pennsylvania Gazette, published as The Pennsylvania Gazette; Date: 04-24-1766; Issue: 1948; Page: [5]; Location: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
[7] Paper: Pennsylvania Gazette, published as The Pennsylvania Gazette; Date: 06-26-1766; Issue: 1957; Page: [3]; Location: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
[8] Paper: Pennsylvania Gazette, published as The Pennsylvania Gazette; Date: 02-05-1767; Issue: 1989; Page: Supplement [1]; Location: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
[9] Paper: Pennsylvania Gazette, published as The Pennsylvania Gazette; Date: 01-15-1767; Issue: 1986; Page: Supplement [1]; Location: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
[10] Paper: Pennsylvania Gazette, published as The Pennsylvania Gazette; Date: 06-11-1767; Issue: 2007; Page: Supplement [2]; Location: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
[11] Paper: Pennsylvania Gazette, published as The Pennsylvania Gazette; Date: 10-29-1767; Issue: 2027; Page: [1]; Location: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
[12] Hancock, David. “Commerce and Conversation in the Eighteenth-Century Atlantic: The Invention of Madeira Wine” Journal of Interdisciplinary History. XXIX:2 (Autumn, 1998), 197-219.
[13] Paper: Pennsylvania Gazette, published as The Pennsylvania Gazette; Date: 05-16-1771; Issue: 2212; Page: [3]; Location: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Categories: History of Wine Tags:

A Pair of 17th Century English Tokens with Grape Vines

December 27, 2013 Leave a comment

In looking through images from the British Museum online collection I came across these two 17th century tokens featuring grapevines.  I know nothing of 17th century merchant tokens but several appear within John Yonge Akerman’s Tradesmen’s Tokens Current in London and Its Vicinity Between the Years 1648 and 1672 (1849).  For this post I present simplified descriptions from Ackerman’s book and include images of two tokens.  In looking at the tokens I cannot help but wonder who engraved them and what were the inspirations for the grapevines.  Both vines are untrained, layered for depth,  and bearing fruit.  The vocabulary is similar, five clusters of grapes with seven or eight leaves, each of which five lobes.  Simon Marshal’s clusters feature five grapes each whereas John Barnes’ contain closer to ten, densely packed grapes.  Were they based on a single garden vine or perhaps an example from a London nursery?

# , T.2926.  Image from The British Museum.

#930, farthing,  T.2926. Image from The British Museum.

There are just a handful of tokens which feature a grape vine:

#785 Obverse: AT THE VINE IN. Reverse: GOVLDEN LANE.
#1193 Obverse: JOHN BARNES AT THE. Reverse: VINE IN LONGAKER, 1664.

#1193, halfpenny, T.3095. Image from The British Museum.

#1193, halfpenny, T.3095. Image from The British Museum.

The list of tokens including a bunch of grapes are:

#59 Obverse: GABRIEL HARPER. Reverse: WITHOVT ALLGAT 59.
#1018 Obverse: GEO. WAPLES, YE OLD BVNCH. Reverse: IN HOVNSDICH.
#1227 Obverse: JOHN VARNY AT THE. Reverse:  IN LOTHBVRY, 1671.
#1619 Obverse: ED. FLOWERS AT THE. Reverse: ROSEMARY LANE EN.
#1632 Obverse: THOMAS MAY AT Y E BUNCH. Reverse: GRAPES IN REDERIF …1669.

[1]  Ackerman, John Yonge. Tradesmen’s Tokens Current in London and Its Vicinity Between the Years 1648 and 1672. 1849. URL:

A Recent Pair of Tasty Wines

December 26, 2013 Leave a comment

Both of these wines are full of flavor which is undeniable after a few hours of air.  I suspect the 2010 Casar de Burbia, Casar could use with a few months of cellar time.  This is serious, more concentrated Mencia.  The 2010 Montesco, Passionate Wine, Parral received a very high score which was hard to avoid and ignore.  Despite my skepticism, I really enjoyed the savory flavors and ample mouthfeel.  It is a full but not overdone experience.  I definitely recommend you try both of these selections.  These wines were purchased at MacArthur Beverages.


2010 Casar de Burbia, Casar, Bierzo – $20
Imported by South River Imports.  This wine is 100% Mencia aged 8 months in French (American?) oak.  Alcohol 13.5%.  With air the wine unfolds a little to reveal blue, black, and violet fruit.  The flavors have some weight before a little tangy note comes out followed by some wood.  The wine oscillates as it takes on air, sometimes showing a little vanilla and other times a watering acidity.  The structure develops with air making fine, drying tannins stick on the insides of the cheeks.  Good flavors, serious Mencia.  *** Now-2019.


2010 Montesco, Passionate Wine, Parral, Mendoza – $22
Imported by Monsieur Touton.  This wine is a blend of 40% Malbec, 30% Cabernet Sauvignon, and 40% Bonarda sourced from 30+ year old vines which spent 12 months in French and American oak. Alcohol 14%.  There was a sweet nose of deep blue and black fruit.  In the mouth were rich but not overpowering flavors with a savory presence on the tongue.  It had thickness, decent complexity, minerals in the finish, and was spicy throughout.  With air it takes on some earth and rounds out.  It becomes a touch forceful after much air but has good flavors.  **** Now-2019.


Merry Christmas and Happy Holidays

December 24, 2013 Leave a comment

I hope you have a happy holiday and enjoy unique wine with your friends and family.  I am starting with the 2002 Leeuwin Estate, Chardonnay, Art Series, Margaret River which was given to me many years ago by my friend William.  Thank you for reading this blog and sharing your comments with me.  I am curious to read what you are enjoying as well.



Categories: Image

Christmas Claret with Lou

December 23, 2013 2 comments


This past weekend we gathered at Lou’s house for what is meant to be an annual Christmas tasting…with dinner.  We had decided on Bordeaux ahead of time but in the hours preceding we focused in on the 1983 and 1989 vintages.  The red wines were double-decanted such that they had two hours of air prior to tasting.  We began with charcuterie, an old family crab dish, and a bottle of NV Duval-Leroy, Brut.  Lou and I agreed that it nicely revealed bottle age which made it quite integrated and with subdued bubbles, very easy to drink.  I am not entirely sure what the 2009 Strohmeier, Weisswein aus Trauben, Liebe und Zeit is made out of. Apparently Pinot Blanc.  Regardless this self-professed “natural wine” was aromatic and very complex on the nose.  The balance of acidity and skin-contact flavors was quite attractive.

We moved down to the cellar to taste through the red wines.  The 1989 Chateau Lalande-Borie, Saint-Julien was purchased over 7 years ago from MacArthur Beverages.  This was opened as a curiosity and surprisingly, the nose was quite deep and earthy.  Most people liked this bottle.  The nose was its strong point for the flavors came up a bit short.  For me the 1983 Chateau Sociando-Mallet, Haut-Medoc had a nose strong in old-school perfume but the flavors remained firm.  It should continued to live for some time but I do not see it improving.  The 1983 Chateau Gloria, Saint-Julien was a perfect example of mature Bordeaux with a fill at the bottom of the neck.  From the beginning the nose was aromatic and deep.  In the mouth were fresh fruit, good acidity, and expansive flavors.  Completely mature but  in no way past its prime.  The 1989 Chateau l’Enclos, Pomerol was quite good by the end of the evening when it opened to show black fruit and minerals.  I wonder if it could develop further.  Unfortunately the 1989 Chateau Cantermerle, Haut-Medoc was a somewhat flawed bottle.  If you got beyond the musty nose there were veiled flavors of good fruit.  Normal bottles must actually be quite good.

Right before leaving I had a quick glass of 2006 Waitrose (Chateau Suduiraut), Sauternes from half bottle.  Lou had picked this up during one of his trips to the UK.  The wine is produced by Chateau Suduiraut using estate fruit.  I thought it already showed an attractive maturity which made it a satisfying drink.

NV Duval-Leroy, Brut, Champagne
Imported by Duval-Leroy Importers.  This wine is a blend of Pinot Noir and Chardonnay.  Alcohol 12%.  The nose revealed biscuit, dark yellow fruit, and some toast.  There were good, frothy bubbles at first which quickly dissipated.  The flavors were fresh before the wine became still.  It tasted as if it had some bottle age.  There were dried herbs and toast in the finish.  There was acidity at first then it returned in the aftertaste.  *** Now-2016.


2009 Strohmeier, Weisswein aus Trauben, Liebe und Zeit
Imported by Williams Corner Wine.  This wine is 100% Pinot Blanc.  Alcohol 13%.  The wine was slightly cloudy with a light golden yellow color.  The nose was very aromatic with Christmas spices, clove, orange peeling, mulling spices, and floral notes.  In the mouth the crisp acidity was immediately noticeable follow by weight from skin contact.  The wine then became light in flavor with laser acidity and focus to the flavors.  Really nice wine.  **** Now-2016.


1989 Chateau Lalande-Borie, Saint-Julien
Imported by Luke’s Distributing Co.  This wine is a blend of 65% Cabernet Sauvignon, 25% Merlot, and 10% Cabernet Franc.  Alcohol 12.5%.  The light was was quite inviting with earthy aromas of blue and red berries.  In the mouth there was good acidity to the black and red fruit then a slightly firm middle followed by a wood note.  The finish was shorter in flavor.  The acidity was present throughout.  The nose was the best part *** at first but overall ** Now-2018.


1983 Chateau Sociando-Mallet, Haut-Medoc
Imported by Calvert Woodley.  This wine is a blend of 60% Cabernet Sauvignon, 25% Merlot, 10% Cabernet Franc, and 5% Petit Verdot.  Alcohol 11%-13%.  The nose consistently revealed old-school perfume, it did not give up much fruit.  In the mouth the wine was firmer in flavor with black fruit, prominent acidity, and the sense that this will be long-lived.  ** Now-2024.


1983 Chateau Gloria, Saint-Julien
Imported by N & T Imports.  This wine is a blend of 65% Cabernet Sauvignon, 25% Merlot, 5% Cabernet Franc, and 5% Petit Verdot.  Alcohol 11%-14%.  There was a good nose with light to medium strength aromas of deep berries and roasted meat.  In the mouth were tangy berry flavors at first then fresher fruit.  The flavors were gently mouth filling and balanced by good, lively acidity.  It became higher-toned with powdery fruit.  Nice wine.  *** Now-2018.


1989 Chateau l’Enclos, Pomerol
Imported by Luke’s Distributing Co.  This wine is a blend of 80% Merlot, 19% Cabernet Franc, and 1% Malbec.  Alcohol 12.5%.  There was a low-lying, serious nose.  In the mouth the black fruit tasted fresh and dense.  There was a tangy middle with a cedar note developing by the finish.  It had minerals, good complexity, and was developing well.  With air there was a gentle cedar note, soft finish, and both minerals and a fresh touch of earth in the aftertaste.  *** Now-2020.


1989 Chateau Cantermerle, Haut-Medoc
Imported by Bordeaux Wine Locators.  This wine is a blend of 40% Cabernet Sauvignon, 40% Merlot, 18% Cabernet Franc, and 2% Petit Verdot.  Alcohol 12.5%.  The nose was affected by some TCA and was musty but there was fruit underneath.  In the mouth were muted but dense black and red fruit with good acidity and mouthfeel.  It tasted unevolved, muted, and unfortunately a little rough in the finish.  Completely drinkable.  ** Now-2023.


2006 Waitrose (Chateau Suduiraut), Sauternes
This wine is a blend of Semillon and Sauvignon Blanc which was aged for 16 months in 10% new and 90% used oak barrels.  Alcohol 14%.  No formal note but a nice wine, tasting mature already with thickness and spices.  Why wait?  *** Now-2018.


Bonneau, Clos St Jean, P. Usseglio and More: A Satisfying Tasting of Chateauneuf du Pape

December 20, 2013 Leave a comment


The last-minute return of Frank Morgan (Drink What YOU Like) to Maryland was the impetus for a casual night of Chateauneuf du Pape at my house.  Thus on a work night Frank, Jenn, Lou, Roland, and I gathered by the warm fire drinking a bagged bottle of bubbly.  There was no mistaking this for Krug or Dom Perignon but the lack of Champagne in my basement led to some fun jokes and general comments.  I believe it was enjoyed by all and Lou certainly ripped open the bag with curiosity.  I have lately taken to the NV Lambert de Seyssel, Petit Royal so that it now serves as our house bubbly.  This undated, yet single vintage, wine offers complexity and balance at an outstanding price.  The 2012 Mark Herold Wines, Flux, Blanc was served bagged as well.  It was a fresh, floral wine with stone notes and a lot of mouthfeel.  Everyone guessed Sauvignon Blanc with some Chenin Blanc which just demonstrates how different it was from the 2007 Clos Saint Jean, Blanc.  The latter revealed some maturity and a barrel note but its density and youthful aspect lead me to believe it will develop for quite some time.  The next morning I found both of these bottles, uncorked and half full.  I corked them, chilled them, then tasted them again.  The Mark Herold was a touch sharper but the Clos Saint Jean was drinking well with increased length.


NV Lambert de Seyssel, Petit Royal
Imported by Kermit Lynch.  This wine is a blend of 70% Molette and 30% Altesse sourced from 10-25 year old vines.  Alcohol 12%. The nose reveals dark yellow aromas and There were soft bubbles which dance on the tongue-tip revealing a textured mousse.  Dark notes mix with the yellow fruit.  Good acidity at first leading to chewy fruit and a tangy, textured finish.  Has good complexity.  Drinks well over many nights so no rush to drink up but perfectly mature right now.  *** Now.


2012 Mark Herold Wines, Flux, Blanc
This wine is a blend of 84% Grenache Blanc and 16% Rousanne.  Alcohol 13.3%.  The nose was floral with white fruit, stones, and freshness.  There was some grip at first then the wine rounded out a bit.  The flavors became tropical towards the finish where the salivating acidity picked up.  It became tangy with air.  It took on a little texture and some tannin.  *** Now-2017.

2007 Clos Saint Jean, Blanc, Chateauneuf du Pape
Imported by Weygandt-Metzler.  This wine is an equal blend of Grenache Blanc, Roussanne, and Clairette which sees some age in new barrels.  Alcohol 13.5%.  The nose was taking on a little cedar and maturity.  In the mouth were round, dense flavors with stones playing a supportive role.  It was creamy towards the finish with a barrel note.  It was still tight and young.  On the second night it had a lovely mouthfeel, the minerals were more obvious, and the length of the aftertaste had improved.  *** Now-2024.


I set out enough glasses on the dining room table for each of us to have three so we naturally tasted the Chateauneuf du Pape in flights.  All of the wines were served in bags.  The 2011 Domaine de Ferrand was interesting for its youthful red fruit and citrus note which kept putting on weight and developing a saline quality.  This seems odd but works out quite well if you are ready for an intense experience.  The 2008 Saint Cosme was not a corked bottle but its dusty nose leads me to believe it underperforming.  The 1999 Domaine Charvin showed really well and completely engaged me with its complex, earthy aromas and animale flavors.

2011 Domaine de Ferrand, Chateauneuf du Pape
Imported by Weygandt-Metzler.  This wine is a blend of 94% Grenache with the rest Mourvedre, Syrah, and Bourboulenc sourced from 60 to 100 year old vines.  It is aged in large oak foudre and some used barriques.  Alcohol 15%.  The nose was fresh with young fruit, a little citrus note, orange peel, perhaps clove, and candy.  In the mouth were good, young, saline red fruit.  It had nice young weight which was maintained through the finish.  The saline quality developed as well as flavors of raspberry candy.  It continued to develop with air.  On the second night, it showed some roughness in the aftertaste.  **** Now-2028.

2008 Saint Cosme, Chateauneuf du Pape
Imported by The Country Vintner.  This wine is a blend of 50% Grenache, 30% Mourvedre, 10% Cinsault, 7% Syrah, and 3% Clairette which was aged for 24 months in used barrels.  Alcohol 14.5%.  The nose had a maturing aroma and was, perhaps a little dusty.  The flavors were more mellow in the mouth with some black minerals and some youthfulness.  On the second night this firm wine did not give up much beyond dried herbs.  Underperforming?  * Now.

1999 Domaine Charvin, Chateauneuf du Pape
Imported by Weygandt-Metzler.  This wine is a blend of 80% Grenache, 15% Syrah, and 5% Mourvedre and Vaccarese sourced from vines averaging 50 years of age.Alcohol 14%.  The nose was complex and aromatic with earth and stinky fruit.  In the mouth the fruit was chewy with good acidity.  It had a lighter beginning followed by some firmness in the finish where mature flavors came out.  It was still fresh and became more animale with air.  Nice. **** Now-2020.


The second flight mirrored the first flight in that the first and third wines showed very well.  The 2000 Domaine du Pegau, Cuvee Reservee was drinking really well.  There was an effortless old-school quality to the wine but also a core of young fruit to carry it on for years.  I did not much care for the 2009 Domaine de la Vieille Julienne on the first night.  despite being double-decanted hours ahead of time it remained very tight and modern.  After a few more hours of air on the second night, its potential began to be revealed.  I would keep this in the cellar and reevaluate in three years.   In contrast to the Pegau which was perfectly open and consistent throughout the evening the 2001 Pierre Usseglio & Fils, Reserve des deux freres continued to evolve with air.  With lovely fruit it too was drinking well but I suspect there is more to come with this wine.

2000 Domaine du Pegau, Cuvee Reservee, Chateauneuf du Pape
This wine is a blend of 80% Grenache, 6% Syrah, 4% Mourvedre and other varieties which are fermented in cement tanks then aged in foudres.  Alcohol 13.5%.  The nose was quite complex with spices.  In the mouth the flavors were very good with a core of young fruit.  It was a little juicy and a touch spicy in the finish.  Why take a note when one should just drink it?  **** Now-2028.

2009 Domaine de la Vieille Julienne, Chateauneuf du Pape
Imported by Europvin.  This wine is a blend of 65% Grenache and 35% Cinsault, Syrah, Mourvedre, and Clairette.  Alcohol 15.5%.  The nose returned to young and fresh aromas but was still tight.  In the mouth were modern fruit.  On the second night the nose was still tight with some mixed berries escaping.  In the mouth were slowly expanding flavors of blue and black fruit followed by a lot of minerals towards the finish.  It was almost metallic with minerals in the aftertaste.  There were hints of garrigue.  A powerful wine that is still firm and black.  **(**) 2018-2028.

2001 Pierre Usseglio & Fils, Reserve des deux freres, Chateauneuf du Pape
This wine is a blend of 70% Grenache and 30% Syrah which was aged in 60% foudres and 40% Burgundy barrels.  Alcohol 14.5%.  The nose was a little reticent at first but opened up really well with air.  The good nose was followed by lovely fruit, revealing a wine which was still youthful.  The structure was still there but the flavors were taking on thickness and ripe spices.  Plenty of life as it continued to develop all evening.  ****(*) Now-2035.


Upon revealing the flight Roland became excited to find out we had been drinking the 2000 Pegau.  A connection was quickly made to some wine in his cellar.  As he lives just two streets away he dashed home with an empty paper bag only to return minutes later with the bag containing an open bottle.  The 2000 Bonneau, Reserve des Celestins was a great last wine.  Paul Feraud and Henri Bonneau were classmates so to sample both wines from the same vintage was cool.  The Bonneau had a bit more structure and reserves for development.  With all of the bottles revealed everyone set out to retaste the wines.  I scanned my meager notes but could not bring myself to write down more.  I wanted to drink these wines and the conversation was just too much fun, particularly on the uses of the Coravin.

It seemed that just a few minutes had passed when the bottle of Bonneau was held up.  It was to my surprise, empty.  It was the bottles of Bonneau, Charvin, Pegau, and P. Usseglio which stood empty at the end of the evening.   Perhaps that expresses the pleasure of aged Chateauneuf du Pape.  They are wines you want to drink or at least the five of us did.

2000 Bonneau & Fils, Reserve des Celestins, Chateauneuf du Pape
Imported by MacArthur Liquors.  This wine is a blend of 90% Grenache and 10% Mourvedre, Syrah, Counoise, and Vaccarese which was fermented in concrete tanks then aged in old Burgundy barrels.  Alcohol 14.5%.  The color looked older and was very clear in the glass.  The nose was sweaty, engaging, and youthful.  In the mouth were fresh, chewy flavors and Kirsch.  Beautiful.  ****(*) Now-2030.


The 1843 Auction of Thomas Bloodgood’s Old Madeira

December 19, 2013 1 comment
The Island of Madeira with the Brig Comet Thomas Ormston Master entering the Bay of Funchal. Duncan, E. 1831. PAF7720. Image from National Maritime Museum.

The Island of Madeira with the Brig Comet Thomas Ormston Master entering the Bay of Funchal. Duncan, E. 1831. PAF7720. Image from National Maritime Museum.

Thomas Bloodgood was a president of the City Bank, a wine merchant near Fulton Market, and an agent for the Bloodgood nurseries in Flushing.[0]  After Mr. Bloodgood’s death in 1843,  the wine cellar was auctioned off by his executors on December 21, 1843, at the City Hotel in New York City.[1]  Two days after the auction the sales results were published.[2]  This was a significant cellar of which the Madeira alone spanned the vintages of 1754 to 1836.  Many of the producers and ships appear throughout the history of Madeira advertisements.  The Madeira imported by Mr. Bloodgood appears in advertisements over the years as generic” Bloodgood” in 1845[3] to more specific “Bloodgood, imported in 1835” at the sale of Chester Jennings’ wines in 1848[4].  “Old Bloodgood” was even served at the September 17, 1850, supper given by the Cincinnati Independent Fire Co.[5]  In this post I have reproduced the list of Madeira as it appeared in newspaper.  I have left out the unidentified lots of Madeira.

  • 1754 Madeira, sent by Mr. Oliviera as a present, 2 cases
  • 1754 Madeira, sent to Mr. Bloodgood as a present from Madeira, one bottle, at $5
  • 1779 Mary Elizabeth, 12 demijohns, $4.50-$5 per gallon
  • 1790 Madeira, sent to Mr. Bloodgood as a present from Madeira, one bottle at $5
  • 1791 Blackburn, from the private stock of the late Thomas Tom, 38 bottles at $2.75 each
  • Blackburn, bottled 18[?]6, drawn out for rebottling 1836, 30 demijohns, $4 per gallon
  • Pre-1800 Madeira, from Mr. Bloodgood’s private stock, who received it on the division of Mr. Tom’s wine, 18 bottles, $4.50 per bottle
  • 1794 Madeira, sent to Mr. Bloodgood as a present from Madeira, two bottles, $5 each
  • 1798 Monteiro Madeira, bottled in 1808, rebottled in 1830, 17 bottles at $3 each
  • 1800 Madeira, sent to Mr. Bloodgood as a present from Madeira, two bottles, $5 each
  • 1800 Madeira, 5 years in Calcutta, imported into Baltimore 1808, six dozen, $14 per dozen
  • 1800 Madeira, 5 years in Calcutta, imported into Baltimore 1808, 30 demijohns, $4-$4.50 per gallon
  • 1803 Crawford, bottled 1808, rebottled 1836, 160 bottles at $2-$2.12 each
  • 1803 Newton Gordon Murdock, 3 pipes
  • 1803 Madeira of late Robt. Lennox, Esq., 200 half-gallon bottles, at $1.75 each
  • 1805 Craford Madeira, in demijohns and bottles
  • Calcutta Madeira, three years in Calcutta, imported in 1806, two pipes, $13.50 per dozen
  • 1808 Buchanan Teneriffe, in demijohns, 40 bottles at $3.50 each
  • 1808 St. Anna Madeira, in demijohns and bottles
  • 1808 Choice Malmsy Leacoch
  • 1808 Blackburn, 40 dozen in half gallons and quarts
  • 1809 “Olevelra “
  • 1812 Leacock Madeira, bottled 18[?]8, rebottled 1837,32 dozen, $24 to $27 per dozen
  • 1812 Leacock Madeira, supposedly, recently rebottled, 153 half-gallon magnums, $1.81 each
  • Pre-1820, very old, 11 bottles at $2.75 each
  • Pre-1820, red seal, very old, 47 bottles at $3-$3.50 each
  • Pre-1820, very old and dry, 18 bottles at $2 each
  • 1820 Oliveria, 48 magnums, $1.50-$1.63 each
  • 1820 Oliveria, six dozen bottles, $9.25 per dozen
  • 1820 Oliveria, 30 demijohns, at $3.25 per gallon
  • 1822 Pomona, bottled 1843, 12 dozen, at $13.5 per dozen
  • 1822 Pomona, bottled 1843, six demijohns, at $4.50 per gallon
  • Pomona, imported in 1824, two pipes, $2.56 per gallon
  • Juno, two and a half pipes
  • Juno, imported 1822, bottled in 1843, 12 dozen, $1.50-$1.75 each bottle
  • Juno, imported 1822, bottled in 1843, 11 demijohns, $4.50-$5 per gallon
  • 1823 Howard March Madeira, two butts
  • 1825, imported by the Cazenove in 1838, three quarter-casks, at $3.[illegible] per gallon
  • 1825 P. J. Monterio & Co., imported 1835 by the Madrid, cased, 3 quart-casks, at $3.25 per gallon
  • Howard, imported 1825 from J. Howard, March & Co, 9 pipes and 1 butt, at $3.25 per gallon
  • 18[?]9 Mary Elizabeth, 24 demijohns
  • 1828 Ivanough, bottled 1834, 23 bottles, at $0.85 each
  • 1831 Indian Queen, one pipe and two half pipes
  • Ivanough, imported 1831, one quarter-cask, at $3 per gallon
  • [illegible] Anna, a fine old wine, imported by Messrs F. Stevens & sons, purchased in 1833, $19 per dozen
  • Madeira, imported by the San Francisco in 1832, two half-pipes, at $2 per gallon
  • Ivanough, imported 1834, two quarter-casks, at $3 per gallon
  • 1834 Goiconda, one quarter-cask
  • Howard Madeira, very choice wine of the highest cost, imported in 1835 from J&H March & Co., 36 demijohns, $4.[illegible] – $5 per gallon
  • Monteiro, imported 1835 by the India, two quarter-casks, $2.25-$3 per gallon
  • Olivera & Co., imported 1836 by Oucco, one pipe, $3.25 per gallon
  • 1836 Oneco Madeira, one pipe
  • Newton, Gordon, Murdock & Co., 34 pipes
  • Monteiro, per ship India, four pipes, 10 and one-third pipes, and four quarter-casks
  • Very choice Oliviera, three pipes
  • Arthur T. Taylor Madeira, a very delicate Light Wine, 24 demijohns

[0] Barrett, Walter. The Old Merchants of New York City, Volume 5. 1885. URL:
[1] Date: Saturday, December 2, 1843                 Paper: Commercial Advertiser (New York, NY)   Volume: XLVI   Page: 3
[2] Date: Saturday, December 23, 1843              Paper: Spectator (New York, NY)   Page: 2
[3] Date: Friday, April 18, 1845             Paper: Commercial Advertiser (New York, NY)   Volume: XLVIII   Page: 1
[4] Date: Friday, December 29, 1848                   Paper: Daily National Intelligencer (Washington (DC), DC)   Volume: XXXVI   Issue: 11183   Page: 4
[5] Date: Wednesday, July 21, 1909     Paper: Cincinnati Post (Cincinnati, OH)   Page: 4
Categories: History of Wine Tags:

My First Look at 2010 Bordeaux

December 18, 2013 Leave a comment

Jenn and I tasted the three Bordeaux featured in this post over the course of three nights.  The 2010 Chateau Tour St. Bonnet remained firm over the period so I suspect it really is a wine that will benefit from short-term cellaring.  The 2010 Chateau du Moulin Rouge was a bit more expressive showing an interesting saline and graphite touch.  The flavors come off lighter despite the strong structure.  My favorite of the trio was the 2010 Chateau Malescasse.  It showed a pleasing balance of fruit, weight, structure, and influence from wood.  These wines were purchased at MacArthur Beverages.


2010 Chateau Tour St. Bonnet, Medoc – $18
Imported by MacArthur Liquors.  This wine is a blend of 45% Cabernet Sauvignon, 45% Merlot, 5% Malbec, and 5% Petit Verdot sourced from vines averaging 35 years of age.  Alcohol 14%.  There was red fruit in the mouth with a firm underpinning of very fine tannins.  With air it took on a stone-like firmness.  It remained tight but was more expansive in the finish where an almost inky note came out.  ** 2015-2020.


2010 Chateau du Moulin Rouge, Haut-Medoc – $20
Imported by MacArthur Liquors.  This wine is a blend of 50% Merlot, 40% Cabernet Sauvignon, and 10% Cabernet Franc sourced from vines averaging 35 years of age which was aged for 12 months in oak barrels.  Alcohol 13.5%.  The color was a quite-dark black cherry.  There was red fruit with a little greenhouse note and acidity on the back sides of the tongue.  This was lighter in body and lighter in the middle with watery acidity.  It was a touch saline with powdery lipstick flavors, and a firmer structure.  There were graphite notes in the finish.  With air it developed flavors of hard raspberry candy.  This has the strength to develop.  **(*) 2015-2024.


2010 Chateau Malescasse, Haut-Medoc – $20
Imported by MacArthur Liquors.  This wine is a blend of 55% Cabernet Sauvignon, 35% Merlot, and 10% Cabernet Franc which was aged for 16 months in 30% new oak.  Alcohol 14%.  The nose was very subtle eventually revealing leather and black fruit.  In the mouth were slightly dense, black and red fruit.  There was a slightly cool aspect.  There was some perfume, acidity, and tannins in the finish followed by a hint of leather and a little earth.  With air the structure nicely came out along with some viscous weight and a hint of green house.  **(*) Now-2024?


The Sale of Old Madeira During the Post Civil War Decades

December 17, 2013 2 comments

James T. Hunt wrote that many southern families sold their Madeira in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.[1]  These cellars were fortunate to survive not only destruction but also consumption during the war.  An article published in Charleston, South Carolina about life in a confederate camp describes the consumption of various drinks.[2]  Before the blockade, camps were supplied by “time honored wine cellars [which] contributed the choicest liquors.”  Drinks were offered everywhere with the mess tables covered with “bottled hospitality.”  Under the tables were demijohns of rye and Cognac and “not unfrequently a miniature vault below the floor of the tent had only to be tapped to disclose a mine of Madeira, sherry and champagne.”  The old Madeira which was not drunk during the war was often buried, hidden, or transported to other cities for safekeeping.  After the Civil War one New York City wine merchant traveled south purchasing “many bottles of a most beautiful Madeira”.[3]  This particular wine was a Rainwater Madeira which had been hidden in a Savannah garden and believed to date to 1783 or earlier.  These Oglethorpe bottles were still being sold in 1911.

Savannah, Georgia. Ruins of houses.  Cooley, Sam A. 1865. LC-B811- 3552.  Image from Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division.

Savannah, Georgia. Ruins of houses. Cooley, Sam A. 1865. LC-B811- 3552. Image from Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division.

Old Madeira was cherished in the post war years.  Henry R. Mygatt had a quart bottle of old Madeira which had been bottled by Robert Morris in 1774.[4]  The particular bottle was exhibited at the centennial exhibition at Philadelphia in 1876. It was reported in 1896 that Henry Clews possessed both 1812 Burgundy and several cases of 1812 Madeira.[5]  In 1900 the auction of 11 bottles of 1740 or 1750 [date illegible] Rain Water Madeira realized $8.50 per bottle.[6]  At the same auction 11 bottles of an 1828 Madeira realized $5 per bottle.

Being naturally curious about what else survived the war I set out to discover which cellars were sold, what they contained, and where they went.  For this post I have focused in on Madeira that was imported prior to the Civil War.  I must admit that this post rambles a bit.  This reflects the fact that quite a lot of Madeira changed hands and I am still obtaining a grasp on this period.  If you delight in old vintages and the colorful names of Madeira parcels then you should still enjoy reading this post.

In 1896 the wines of John Pendleton Kennedy of Maryland was auctioned off at Matthews and Kirkland of South Charles Street, Baltimore.  John Pendleton Kenney resided in Maryland.  His parcel consisted of 327 bottles of Madeira and one five gallon demijohn of Madeira lees.  All of the wine was stored in demijohns having been bottled during the fall of 1895.  The auction began with the 207 bottles of undated “Japan” Madeira of which the entire lot went to Mr. W. W. Spence at $2.60 per bottle.  In addition the 27 bottles of 1833 Dun & Co. sold for $6.50 each, 50 bottles of 1833 Blackburn sold for $3.75 each, 36 bottles of 1837 “Thomas” sold for $2.50[?illegible] each, and 5 bottles of undated “Washington” sold for $5.50 each.  The demijohn of lees sold for $16.

Madeira Islands, view of Funchal from sea.  1905?. Af,A64.3.  Image from British Museum.

Madeira Islands, view of Funchal from sea. 1905?. Af,A64.3. Image from British Museum.

John Pendleton Kennedy was Secretary of the Navy under President Filmore in 1852.  Major A. M. Hancock was the United States Consul in Malaga, Spain and a friend of both President Filmore and Mr. Kennedy.  According to Major Hancock, Commodore Perry informed President Filmore he would be stopping at Madeira on his way to Japan and would purchase a cask of wine if he was ordered.[7]  The president, who did not drink, gave the order and it was understood to purchase the Madeira for the Cabinet.  The Madeira would have been purchased between December 12, 1852, and December 15, 1852, during Commodore Perry’s brief stay in Funchal.[8]  Major Hancock believed the Madeira to be a few years of age at the time so that would make it of the 1850 vintage or earlier.  The number of casks purchased is unclear but they traveled in the hold to Japan and back eventually being delivered  to the former President Filmore.  After President Filmore’s death the Madeira made its way to Mr. Kennedy.  During the Civil War Mr. Kennedy racked off the Madeira into demijohns so it could be transported to New York City for safekeeping.

The same auction also featured 113 bottles of Madeira from the late Charles Bruce of Staunton Hill, Virginia.  The Madeira was believed to be at least 40 years old, vintage 1856 or older.  The Madeira had been stored in the cellar except during the Civil War when some was buried in the ground and the rest was stored in Lynchburg.  As it had no provenance the Madeira it sold at lower prices of $2.10 to $3.50 per bottle.

In 1897 Jules Eddy Kennedy of the “famous old wine purveyors, George E. Kennedy & Sons” was interviewed for the article Wines of Washington.[9]  For the last 20 years he had been interested in the “old Southern wine cellars left after the devastation of war.”  These cellars of old Madeira, Sherry, and Brandy had been imported as far back as the time of the Revolutionary General Jacob Reed.  Mr. Kennedy said that “before the war every planter had a wine cellar.”  The wines were buried in the ground during the war so ‘that for a radius of forty or fifty miles around Richmond and Washington are found the oldest and richest wines in America.’  He continued that, “there is no city in the United States where so many luxuries are sold as in Washington.”

One early example of such a sale occurred in January 1868, when the wines of the late Sir Frederick Bacce[?illegible] were sold at auction in Washington, DC.[10]  Of the few hundred bottles there were “ten dozen choice old Madeira”.  It was stated that “Washington bon vivants” were supplied with “choice vintages, at low prices” by diplomats who imported their wine free of duty.  A wine cellar went up for auction at least once every six months.  The former French Minister M. Outrey left his cellar in Washington, DC for auction in 1882.[11]  In included about 50 dozen bottles of Madeira from 1791.

Old Madeira was reported popular “especially on the tables of the Justices of the Supreme Court.”  Before the Civil War merchants in Alexandria, Virginia directly imported stocks of Madeira.  However, in November 1852, the cellar of Josiah Lee of Baltimore, Maryland was sold upon his death.[12]  “[M]any Washington cellars were replenished” by this sale.  There were 50 demijohns of Madeira which went from $14 to $49 per gallon.  One lot sold for $15.50 per bottle, the equivalent of $77.50 per gallon.

Brass token of Cossart, Gordon, & Co.  19th C. 1938,0904.2. Image from British Museum.

Brass token of Cossart, Gordon, & Co. 19th C. 1938,0904.2. Image from British Museum.

Mr. Jules Eddy Kennedy had purchased a parcel from the “old Lee family” through their representative J. Fenner Lee, who was related to Charles Carroll of Carrollton.  There were spirits imported as far back as 1775 and old Madeira imported into Virginia.  At least three bottles of wine were bottled in 1776 when they were supposedly 50 years of age.  Thus these wines of the 1726 or earlier vintage were known as ‘Declaration Madeira.’  One bottle was opened during the last birthday of the historian Bancroft.  Mr. Kennedy said that the Lee wines were bought by several people at auction.  The British Ambassador, Sir Julian Pauncefote, bought a case at $15 per bottle, Senator Hoar purchased at $75 per gallon, and Senator McPherson purchased six bottles at $10 each.  Amongst this lot were the J. Howard, March & Co. Madeira which was “put in glass” as early as 1800 when Mr. Howard was counsel in Madeira.  There were other buyers including L. Z. Leiter of Chicago and Manager Bemis of Hotel Richelieu in New York.  He put a dozen bottles on the list.

Elsewhere old Madeira was auctioned off as early as the months preceding the end of the Civil War.[13]  In February 1865, the merchant Jas. L. Gantt of Charleston, South Carolina, auctioned off some 50 cases of “Very Choice Old Madeira Wine.”  These bottles of Newton & Gordon were bottled prior to 1834 and included vintages from 1817 to 1825.  The death of Frederick Tudor of Boston resulted in an auction of his cellar of wines in 1869 which were elected by Isaac P. Davis.[14]  There were 200 bottles of 1852 Bual, “old Constitution wine” bottled in 1830/50[date illegible], 180 bottles of South Side Madeira bottled in 1832, as well as undated “Montario Madeira.”

The death of Dr. Anson Parsons in 1871 saw the sale of his wine cellar which contained old Madeira and Sherry.[15]  Some of the wines were bottled by Dr. Parsons in Savannah, Georgia and were over 30 years old.  In 1887 the wine cellar underneath the Pulaski House in Savannah was robbed.[16]  At the time the cellar contained old Madeira from 1830, 1832, and 1837 which belonged to the Wiltberger estate.  The historic Colt mansion in Paterson, New Jersey was robbed in 1888.[17]  The robbers drank some 15 gallons of 1815 Madeira worth $600.  Of this “rare vintage” one demijohn had been sealed in honor of the verdict of Daniel Webster, “who had once extolled the wine’s exquisite banquet.”

In 1888 it was reported that the oldest wine in America were located in Savannah.[18]  Though there was a parcel from 1833 there were many significantly older wines.  Members of the Gibbons and Heyward families imported two pipes of the All Saint’s Madeira from 1791 in 1793.  The great fire of 1793 in Savannah destroyed one pipe.  Gibbons and Heyward agreed to split the remaining pipe of which several bottled lots of were purchased in the 1870s.  The Hunter Madeira was imported around the time of the All Saint’s Madeira and often offered by Dr. De Renne at $100 per bottle.  Another cellar contained 20 lots of Newton, Gordon, & Co. Madeira from the vintages 1802 to 1830.  Some 500 pipes of Madeira were imported from the same firm in 1780 and some of it was purported still in Savannah.

Another parcel of old Madeira in Savannah was located in the Habersham mansion on the corner of Harris and Bernard Streets.[19]  The equivalent of some 3,000 quart bottles were the property of the late William Neyle Habersham who died in 1899.  The Habersham cellar or garret was allegedly famous since the founding of Savannah.  The Madeira was stored in a conservatory with walls and ceiling of glass.  There were two rooms with an open framework of boards for the Madeira.  Mr. Habersham reportedly moved the bottles about to expose them to sunlight and warmth. The details of the contents are thin just that there was old Sercial and Malmsey dating back to 1827.  The wine came direct from Madeira and also through London.

The large Madeira collection of A. T. Stewart was auctioned off in New York City during March 1890.[20]  It was reported that he had “undoubtedly the greatest assortment of Madeira in the country” since he was the principal buyer of the March & Benson cellar in 1865.  Charles March was a friend of Daniel Webster and Mr. Benson had a brother who owned one of the “principal Madeira vineyards.”  On May 17, 1865, the firm of Ludlow & Co of New York City sold the personal collection of Mr. March.[21]  These bottles of “old Madeira” had been in possession since 1813.  They included Verdelho, Sercial, Bual, Rapid, Calcutta, Braman, Old Reserve, Wanderer, Muscatel, Juan de Carvalhal, and Old London Particular.  Together they were advertised as “probably the best selected private stock of wines ever in this country.”    The 1890 auction realized some $8,000 due to light bidding and prices remained similar to that in the 1865.  Selected lots include:

  • “very old” Ivanhoe, one case at $45 each.
  • Madeira, bottled 1807, one case at $54.
  • 1810, “Old London Particular”, imported via India on the Jack Warrior, bottled 1843, three demijohns at $54 per dozen bottles.
  • 1815 Sercial, four cases at $57 each.
  • 1818 Madeira, one case at $48.
  • 1819 “M. Y. Green Seal”, five magnums at $5.25 each.
  • 1820 “Carvahal” or “Carvarhal” , one case at $39 each.
  • 1828 Reserve, eight cases at $66 each.
  • 1829, “Wanderer”, six cases at $66 each.
  • 1830 “Camara de Lobos”, nine cases at $45 each.
  • 1836 Sercial, one bottle at $3.50.
  • 1840 Reserve, ten cases at $36-$39 each.
  • 1844, “Talisman”, five cases at $69[? Price illegible] Each.
  • 1846 Bual, nineteen cases  at $36-$39 each.
  • 1846 Verdalho, seven cases at $39 each.
  • Red and black seal Carvahal, four cases.
  • “Sercial P.”, three cases at $54 each.
  • “Ceylon H.  C.”, two cases at $45 each.
  • “Ceylon H. C.”, one case at $51 each.
  • “R. Lenox”, two cases at $63 each.
  • “Thorndike D.”, one case at  $39 each.
  • March & Benson, Sercial, one case at $51 each.
  • “Cama de Lobos”, Imported 1837, two demijojhns at $63 per dozen bottles.
  • March & Benson, Brahmin via India, May, 1826, three demijohns at $72 per dozen bottles.

With effort it is possible to track down the history of these individual lots.  For example, it is probable the Ivanhoe Madeira was imported on the ship Iyanough via New York.  In 1834 it carried the Madeira of Newton, Gordon, Murdoch & Co.[22]  The Bramin or Brahmin Madeiras appear to be advertised as early 1825.  In July 1825, A. Bininger & Son of New York City described these as the “Finest south side Madeira Wines…of the most approved brands” received via India from the ship Bramin.[23]  The Madeiras were available in butts, pipes, hogsheads, and quarter casks.  March & Benson advertised Madeira on September 1825, in pipes via Calcutta from the ship Bramin.[24] They were subject to a drawback. They also listed “Old London Particular” Madeira of the brand J. Howard, March, & Co.  March & Benson still had a few casks of the “Bramin Wine” in December 1826.[25]

The Port of New York--Birds eye view from the Battery, looking south. Currier & Ives. c1892.  Image from Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division.

The Port of New York–Birds eye view from the Battery, looking south. Currier & Ives. c1892. Image from Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division.

Major Slaymaker the Postmaster of Lancaster, Pennsylvania had eighteenth century Madeira as well.[26]  His cellar contained bottles from 1793, 1800, 1808, 1812, 1818, 1827, and 1840.  The 1793 vintage was bottled in 1798 by Philip and Adam Reigart and was worth at least $25 per bottle.  The oldest vintages were considered valuable because it was reported in 1892 that no dealer on the island possessed vintages older than 1815.[27]  The 1827 vintage was the rarest of all because it was” the finest in the history of the island.”

At a dinner for “honest-money democrats” held at Maryland in 1896 rare, old Madeira was served after the 1874 Johannisberger, Ruinart Brut, and 1870s Chambertin.[28]  This Madeira of the 1800 vintage was believed to come from the cellar of President Thomas Jefferson.  The bottle was presented by Mr. Douglas H. Thomas who purchased 20 bottles at the 1890 sale of the Wethered effects in Cantonsville, Maryland.  The Wethereds came into possession of the wine when Philip Evans Thomas purchased it at the sale of Thomas Jefferson’s effects.  The Madeira was described as “rich, fruity flavor.” It originally cost $3 but the “method of compounding” yielded a current value of $1,500 per gallon or $3.50 per teaspoonful.  At the time of the dinner Mr. Thomas still possessed a few more Jefferson bottle.  I shall take a full look at these bottles of Jefferson Madeira, including the Sotheby’s auction, in a future post.

Ten years after the Jefferson Madeira was drunk the cellar of Douglas H. Thomas was sold.[29]  It was reported that Douglas H. Thomas,  C[illegible] Fisher of Gil & Fisher, and the late H[illegible] Johnston purchased most of the Madeira sold in Washington, DC.  The lots offered by Mrs. Thomas included wines originally purchased by James Cox, John Edgar Howard (1862), and Otto W. Eich[illegible] (1873). There were also wines purchased by Josiah Lee.  The specific wines included 1807 South Side and Sheffield Madeiras.  The South Side Madeira was shipped in 1827 by Kiers & Co., imported in 1829 then bottled in 1830.  There are other wines but they are partially illegible in the article: 1820 “Hol[illegible] Murdock Madeira”[30], “Old R[illegible]” Madeira bought of McDonald & R[illegible], E. G. Oelrichs & Lurman in 1840, 1815 Hope[illegible] and Hunt Madeira, and 1817 “Leac[illegible] and Roup Gould.”

[1] Tuten, James H. “Liquid Assets: Madeira Wine and Cultural Capital among Lowcountry Planters, 1735-1900” American Nineteenth Century History, Vol, 6, No. 2, June 2005, pp.173-188.
[2] Date: Saturday, September 4, 1869                Paper: Evening Post (New York, NY)   Volume: 68   Page: 1
[3] “Dust Covered Treasures in Dingy Office Buildings”, The New York Times.  July 30, 1911.
[4] Date: Monday, December 14, 1874               Paper: Indianapolis Sentinel (Indianapolis, IN)   Volume: XXIII   Issue: 166   Page: 7
[5] Date: Sunday, August 30, 1896        Paper: Philadelphia Inquirer (Philadelphia, PA)   Volume: 135   Issue: 61   Page: 27, Date: Thursday, March 20, 1851   Paper: Charleston Courier (Charleston, SC)   Volume: XLIX   Issue: 14761   Page: 3
[6] Date: Tuesday, June 5, 1900            Paper: Daily Herald (Biloxi, MS)   Volume: 2   Issue: 248   Page: 7
[7] Date: Thursday, December 24, 1896              Paper: Sun (Baltimore, MD)   Volume: CXX   Issue: 33   Page: 8
[8] Wolter, John A.  With Commodore Perry to Japan. Naval Institute Press. 2013.
[9]Date: Wednesday, March 10, 1897                 Paper: Denver Post (Denver, CO)   Page: 2 Date: Wednesday, March 10, 1897     Paper: Denver Post (Denver, CO)   Page: 2
[10] Date: Monday, January 6, 1868      Paper: Cincinnati Daily Enquirer (Cincinnati, OH)   Volume: XXXL   Issue: 357   Page: 2
[11] Date: Thursday, May 25, 1882        Paper: New York Tribune (New York, NY)   Page: 4
[12] Date: Friday, November 21, 1884                  Paper: Plain Dealer (Cleveland, OH)   Volume: XLI   Issue: 278   Page: 2
[13] Date: Sunday, February 5, 1865     Paper: Daily Constitutionalist (Augusta, GA)   Volume: XXII   Issue: 182   Page: 3
[14] Date: Monday, November 29, 1869              Paper: Boston Post (Boston, MA)   Volume: XX   Issue: 94   Page: 3
[15] Date: Thursday, April 20, 1871       Paper: Pittsfield Sun (Pittsfield, MA)   Volume: LXXI   Issue: 3683   Page: 2
[16] Date: Thursday, April 28, 1887       Paper: Macon Telegraph (Macon, GA)   Issue: 11698   Page: 3
[17] Date: Monday, August 6, 1888       Paper: Daily Inter Ocean (Chicago, IL)   Volume: VII   Issue: 138   Page: 4
[18] Date: Tuesday, December 11, 1888              Paper: Critic-Record (Washington (DC), DC)   Issue: 45   Page: 2
[19] Date: Sunday, March 4, 1900         Paper: Plain Dealer (Cleveland, OH)   Page: 22
[20] Date: Thursday, March 6, 1890      Paper: New York Herald (New York, NY)   Issue: 65   Page: 8. See also: Date: Thursday, March 6, 1890                   Paper: New York Tribune (New York, NY)   Page: 7
[21] Date: Friday, May 12, 1865             Paper: Philadelphia Inquirer (Philadelphia, PA)   Page: 7
[22] Date: Thursday, August 7, 1834     Paper: Alexandria Gazette (Alexandria, VA)   Page: 3
[23] Date: Tuesday, July 5, 1825             Paper: Evening Post (New York, NY)   Issue: 7170   Page: 3
[24] Date: Thursday, August 25, 1825                   Paper: National Advocate (New York, NY)   Volume: XIII   Issue: 3648   Page: 1
[25] Date: Friday, December 22, 1826                  Paper: Evening Post (New York, NY)   Issue: 7623   Page: 3
[26] Date: Friday, April 26, 1889            Paper: Sun (Baltimore, MD)   Volume: CIV   Issue: 138   Page: 3
[27] Date: Sunday, June 26, 1892          Paper: Plain Dealer (Cleveland, OH)   Page: 12
[28] Date: Monday, November 30, 1896              Paper: Sun (Baltimore, MD)   Volume: CXX   Issue: 12   Page: 6
[29] Date: Sunday, February 25, 1906                  Paper: Sun (Baltimore, MD)   Volume: CXXXVIII   Issue: 101   Page: 16
[30] Presumably Newton, Gordon, and Murdock Madeira.  See: Date: Saturday, December 7, 1839      Paper: Daily National Intelligencer (Washington (DC), DC)   Volume: XXVII   Issue: 8366   Page: 1, Date: Friday, June 5, 1846     Paper: Richmond Whig (Richmond, VA)   Volume: 23   Issue: 45   Page: 3, and