Home > History of Wine > “Murder and Thieves”: Part 1 “..twelve Bottles of Wine, the major Part of which, they drank”

“Murder and Thieves”: Part 1 “..twelve Bottles of Wine, the major Part of which, they drank”


"The Custom House" Anonymous, 1750-1800. #1880,0911.730. The British Museum

“The Custom House” Anonymous, 1750-1800. #1880,0911.730. The British Museum

Wine was transported in to London by way of ship.  It was typically stored in a wooden cask, often a hogshead or pipe.  In some cases it was transported in bottles stored within a chest.  All wine brought into London was subject to duties originally ascribed to the Crown.  Known as butlerage  and presage the Vintner’s company required all wine to be landed above London Bridge next to the Vintry so the King’s butlers and vintners could assess the customs duty.[1]  Butlerage allowed the king’s chief butler to purchase two tuns of wine, one right before the mast and another right behind the mask, at a fixed price from every alien ship carrying 20 tuns or more of wine.  Presage or prisage extended this right over subjects.  Eventually the City of London was granted the right to customs and all wine entering the Port of London was subject to Customs fees.[2]  To assess the correct fees a wine gauger needed to measure the wooden casks.  Initially the wooden casks would be unloaded at a legal quay for measurement.  Once the casks were unloaded the Customs, Excise, and City Gaugers might all be involved in gauging.[4]  It took some time for the casks to be transported from the moored ship to the wharves and eventually gauged.  The volume of trade at the Port doubled from 1700 to 1770 then doubled again from 1770 to 1795.  Some 1,775 vessels were allowed to moor and these were serviced by 3,500 craft for the conveyance of cargo. Thus the casks might be caught up within the Port for several weeks due to the crowd of vessels and inadequate space on the quays.[4]  In 1777 David Cunningham managed to knock the bung out of a butt of sherry belonging to Phillip Mallet and Charles Frisby.[5]  Of the four or five gallons which spilled out onto Ralph’s Quay he managed to run away with half a gallon but was soon caught.  A few years later, in 1784 we find James Ellick indicted for stealing four quarts of red Port from one of 60 pipes of port on Smart’s Quay.  Smart’s Quay was one of 20 quays bounded by London Bridge to the west and Tower Dock to the East.[6]  Having pegged one of the pipes to fill his bladder with port he was spotted by the watchman Abednego Lambert who apprehended James as he headed west to Billingsgate Dock.  Billingsgate Dock was actually a small harbor where cargo was unloaded at the west-side and head of the quay.  With the Thames River at the south of Smart’s Quay and the water of Billingsgate to the west James would have to double-back towards the head of the quay then head west to escape the Customs House on the east.  Perhaps it was a curious feature of Smart’s Quay which aided in the capture.  James was sentenced to whipping on Smart’s Quay.

From "Tower Street Ward" Benjamin Cole, The History and Survey of London from its Foundation to the Present Time, 1754.

From “Tower Street Ward” Benjamin Cole, The History and Survey of London from its Foundation to the Present Time, 1754. From Genmaps.

Though private individuals took out licenses to import their own wine, domestic and foreign merchants imported a great deal of wine.  Wine merchants typically stored their wine, both in cask and bottle, in their wine vaults.  John Bill, a wine merchant, was out in the country one Tuesday in 1762.  While he was out his servant Peter Pulley saw William Brackleyhurst come out of the wine vault with a basket of wine. [7]  William Knowlys and his sons were wine merchants who kept their vaults at Cross Lane, St. Dunstan’s hill.  In 1787 their servant Edward Catlin went to open the wine vault door so that he could deliver two dozen bottles to the porter when Robert Coleman came out of the cellar.  Robert Coleman had six sealed bottled of red port upon his person.  Prior to his visit the bins in the cellar had been completely full and after it contained six vacant places. [8] In 1799 John Ewart, a wine and brandy merchant, with partner George Bell, arrived by hackney coach at their vaults which were located underneath Black-Raven court. [9] He saw John Spaling exit the vaults loaded with five bottles of wine and rum.  In these three Proceedings there was no mention of breaking open the vault doors.  These crimes probably took place during business hours when the cellars were busy.  Indeed, Edward Catlin first thought Robert Coleman was one of the servants of the Knowlys’ working at the vault.

Some thefts were a bit more ambitious.  Thomas Rachey stole a 12 gallon wooden runlet of sherry in 1699.[10]  In 1755 William Westwood and Thomas Coulson were found guilty of stealing a wooden cask containing 10 gallons of red port out of the store-cellar of William Grimes. [11] Thomas Bruin was the cooper in charge of William Grimes cellar which was located at Suffolk Lane.  His assistant William Westwood had fallen in with the “rogue” and taylor Thomas Coulson.  Together Westwood and Coulson took out a cellar in Barking Alley from James West for 40s. per year.  Coulson told Westwood that if they made up 20 gallons of wine they could sell it to Tom Horsenail.  Thus on the night the Medway man-of-war was launched at Deptford, Coulson was carrying the 10 gallon cask from William Grimes’ cellar on Suffolk Lane to their newly rented cellar in Barking Alley.  Thomas Heard, having seen the Medway launch, was coming home when he saw Westwood sweating from carrying the cask.  Heard commented “You sweat” to which Coulson remarked he had only set the cask down once.  A ten gallon cask of port would weigh approximately 90 pounds so it was quite a load to carry almost half a mile.  Suffolk Lane lies west of London Bridge between Cannon Street and The Thames.  The pair would have walked east on Cannon Street continued on Great Tower Street passing south of the Corn Exchange and north of All Hallows Church.  There they would have borne right onto the 95-foot-long Barking Alley to their cellar.  Heard joined the pair for two bottles of wine from the cellar.  Everything came to an end when Bruin found out Westwood had once again been out all night with Coulson and Heard confessed Westwood and Coulson had stolen the cask of port.  Renting a cellar demonstrates long-term commitment.  I can only imagine that Coulson planned to accumulate stores of wine to then sell in quantity to Tom Horsenail or others.

From "Tower Street Ward" John Strype, A Survey of the Cities of London and Westminster, 1720. Copyright Motco Enterprises Limited.

From “Tower Street Ward” John Strype, A Survey of the Cities of London and Westminster, 1720. Copyright Motco Enterprises Limited.

Transporting wine could be dangerous.  David Smith, who worked in the wine trade, was carrying three dozen bottles of wine in a hamper from Piccadilly to Spital Square.[12]  He took a break by placing his hamper on the pitching block at Brown Street, Seven Dials.  A pitching block is a place for people carrying heavy loads to take a break.  A hackney-coach accidentally knocked the hamper over spilling some of the contents.  John Studley came to help Smith with the hamper but grabbed a few bottles instead.  Charles Young having heard Smith cry out, “Murder and thieves!” ran up to apprehend Studley and take him to the magistrate.  In 1781 Henry Mann stood his cart holding a hamper of 24 bottles of wine against the King’s Arms, Bishopsgate Street.[13]  He went in to call a coachman but James Fenton hoisted the hamper on to an accomplice.  Mann’s dog was on the errand cart but was too busy eating so did not bark.  The hamper was recovered and Fenton was detained.

In 1795 a more complicated case comes up.  Peter Chalmer had been the cooper to John Allnutt for three weeks.[14]  Upon receiving some information the Foreman Harrison searched Peter Chalmers lodgings where he found a bottle of wine, three bottles of rum, letters, and papers.  Amongst the papers was a wharfinger’s receipt for a hamper at Glasgow wharf.  It listed the inventory of wines which were contained in the hamper.  A letter also stated , “a small hamper for you.  The contents is a sample of the liquors I have charge of, and I have a right to sample of all the different casks that comes to us.” Several attested to the hand-writing being that of Peter Chalmer and as well as the labels upon the unmarked bottles.  Upon questioning, Harrison testified that it was not customary for coopers to take their own personal samples, nor to draw off wine from a cask for tasting, and that spirits were only sometimes sold by sample.  In his defense Peter Chalmer testified one of the porters told him he could sell all of the empty beer bottles in the vaults and give half the money to Mr. Allnutt.

A wine cooper was a wholesale and retail dealer in wine who was responsible for both the casks themselves and the wine inside.  He was responsible not just for removing them of their lees but also compounding wines to improve flavor and also removing defects.  In 1773 Robert Ireland charged his cellar-man Richard King with stealing some 30 bottles of wine.[15]  Richard King had been hired some three year earlier.  He was responsible for all of Robert Ireland’s vaults.  Upon receiving information Robert Ireland obtained a search warrant and found various types of wine white Port, Lisbon, Sherry, and Hungary wine at Richard King’s lodgings.  In this relationship Richard King was allowed to draw off the remaining wine on the lees for personal consumption.  This wine would be filtered through a bag and was apparently readily identifiable as bag wine.  At first Richard King claimed he had bag wine but confessed to having taken some of the wine.  Richard King then claimed other bottles contained foul wine drawn from the bottom of vessels belonging to Lord Hinchinbrooke.  It did not taste like bag wine to Robert Ireland who thought it easy to distinguish.  Richard King subsequently confessed that it was Robert Ireland’s wine.

Wine was also stolen from private residences.  In 1740 Thomas Crow was indicted for breaking and entering the house of King Gold.[16]  Crow’s brother had once lived in the house as a servant thus was familiar with the house.  They gained entry by opening the cellar window through which they passed out 12 quart bottles of Mountain Wine.  The brothers drank 10 of the bottles in the garden and left the other two untouched.  Jane Bray picked the cellar lock of dwelling house owned by Ishman Reeves on Good Friday.[17]  Having gained entry to the cellar she began to take away some thirty bottles of old Hock belonging to lodger George Hellegar.  She was caught and to her defense claimed, “I know no more of it than the child that is unborn.” Hellegar could not recall having previously lost any wine because he was an old man of four-score years.  In 1795 Henry Hesling the footman to Edward Railton needed to repeatedly gain entry to the wine cellar to accomplish his theft.  To do so he removed enough bricks in the cellar wall so that he could crawl in and out.  He then neatly stacked the bricks after he removed a load of wine.  Over three visits he removed 42 quart bottles of wines.  Railton had not noticed the re-stacked bricks in his cellar so Hesling was only apprehended when he was found outside a shop that purchased old bottles at No. 124, Petticoat Lane, Whitechapel.  Not all thefts were as quiet and non-confrontational.  Captain Thomas Hindman, East India service, awoke one early morning in 1787 to a prodigious noise.[18]  He flew to his pistols, opened his bedroom door then joined his servant Thomas White.  They discovered many items of property strewn about outside and five doors smashed open, including those which had been barred and double-bolted.  They estimated the robbers Samuel Toomes and William Ellicott had been at work for at least two to three hours.  Amongst the items stolen were 48 bottles of Madeira.

"Golden Square" John Bowles(?), 1727. #1880,1113.2987. The British Museum.

“Golden Square” John Bowles(?), 1727. #1880,1113.2987. The British Museum.

Wine bottles and corks were present in the 17th century but continued to evolve until the end of the 18th century.  In the 17th century wine was typically stored in cask then bottled when it came time for drinking.  The bottles first needed to be washed.  Jonathan Swift recommended that every bottle be rinsed with wine after washing for fear of moisture.  He also suggested you change out the rinsing wine every two bottles, saving it to “either to sell or drink with the Cook.”[19]  Lewis Beauvais, wine merchant, kept his wine vaults at the bottom of Hay Market but hired a coach-house solely for washing bottles a quarter-mile walk near Golden Square .  At this point Golden Square had become fashionable with foreign artists but in the 19th century Golden Square became famous when Dr. John Snow investigated the five water pumps during the 1854 Cholera outbreak.  Wines were bottled from casks both by merchants and private individuals.  John Bedford bottled his wine for the King’s Head at Longford in his wine cellar.  Mr. Baldwin, baker, employed Richard King several times to draw off two hogsheads of Madeira.  To do so Richard King carried away the hogsheads for fining and presumably returned with the bottled wine.

Wine was only stolen from cask twice being the 12 gallon runlet of Sherry wine stolen by Thomas Rachey in 1699 and the 10 gallon cask of red wine stolen by William Westwood and Thomas Coulson in 1755.  A stolen wooden cask is a bit conspicuous.  Bladders appear in only three cases between 1765 and 1784.  Therefore wine was primarily stolen by the bottle.  The first stolen wine bottles listed in an indictment are found in 1687 when Joyce Fletcher was found guilty of sending bottled wine into the country for sale.  [20]   The first mention of cork as well as marked bottles is found in 1767 when Mary Sherman, spinster and servant to Mr. Barnard, stole seven bottles of wine.  [21]  Mr. Barnard answered several questions about how he knew these bottles were his property.  His answers are interesting because they reveal several facts.  First, Mr. Barnard comments his bottles stood in various parts of the cellar organized by type.  These earlier bottles were short and squat so they would not tip over at table.  The bottles could not be laid on their sides as evidenced by Mr. Barnard storing his bottles standing.  While corks could be used to stopper the bottles, the seal was often not air tight so a little oil was often poured on top of the wine.  Second, he was asked if these bottles had any particular mark upon the corks or bottles, they did not. This is the first mention of both the use of corks and marking of bottles.

The earliest corks in England may have been primarily used for cider.  Well-corked glass bottles in 1670 were known to contain excellent cider.[22]   There were instances of wine being bottled and stored as well.  In 1771 some labourers were clearing a fish pond near East Grinstea in Suffex.  Deep in the mud they found a bottle inscribed, “New Canary, put in to see how long it will keep good, April 1666, R. Wilson.”  The Monthly Chronologer reported, “The mouth of the bottle was waxed over, the wine was excellent, though the cork was almost decayed.”[23]  Forty-five years later we may read in the section about Bottling Cider it is recommended that great care be taken with the choosing of good corks, though glass stoppers are sometimes recommended.  These bottled may then be stored side-way.[24]  There were dangers for if wine was bottled before having exhaled through the pours of the casks, bottles were not only subject to the danger of bursting but the wine itself was imperfect.  In corking a bottle a hammer drives the cork which is then secured with packthread to “withstand the efforts of the wine”.  The sealing of the cork will account for any mistakes.  The bottle should then be stored obliquely so the cork will not dry out and let in external air.[25]  The Gardener’s Dictionary advises that fine wine should not only be corked and secured with pack-thread but they should be sealed with Spanish wax.  This will prevent any domestics from changing the wine or bottle.  These seal often bear the owners coat of arms.[26] The cellar floor should be covered in two or three fingers worth of sand so the bottles may be laid obliquely.

Firmly driven corks could require a bottle-screw or cork-screw to remove them.  In 1702(?) Sir C. H. used his new set of microscopes to observe Animicula in Waters commenting that a knob on the tail looked like “the Worm of a Bottle Screw”.[27]  Those studying French in 1729 could learn the phrases Debouchez cette Bouteille for “Pull the Cork out of that Bottle.”  Or Je n’ay point de tire-bouchon for “I have no Screw.” [28] Despite these early references bottle screws or cork screws were not common until end of 18th century.  The only mention of a cork screw in the Proceedings is one that was carried to Peter Chalmers in 1795.

Wine Bottle, 1732 (circa). #1961,1102.13. The British Museum.

Wine Bottle, 1732 (circa). #1961,1102.13. The British Museum.

Glass bottles were reused until they were broken.  They often bore a mark of the owner or tavern in the form of a symbol, letters, or words.  In 1764 Jeremiah Wherlings comments that some of the bottles his chamberlain stole were marked on the bottom with the mark of the Jerusalem Tavern.[29]  This was where he kept all of his wine.  Lewis Beauvais identified his Madeira wine by their seals.[30]    In 1780 John Ramsden identified eight stolen bottles, one bottle by the marked cork and seven by marked bottoms.  He commented that at dinner he noticed he grabbed the wrong bottle because he had written on the cork “red wine.” [31]  Two years later George Hellegar identified his old hock by the seals upon the bottles.  In 1785 Thomas King, Esquire comments on several marks: that of his own, that of Mrs. King who gave him a bottle, one sealed with “Smith, Leadenhall-street, No, 91”, and that of a marked cork.[32]  In 1787, the Knowlys sealed only their red port with W.K. and S. for William Knowlys, and Son.  One year later in 1788 Christopher Bartholomew describes both marks and seals.[33]  Some bottles were marked with “two dots, white spots” on the bottom.  He had red wine sealed with “a black seal, with St. John of Jerusalem upon it” which was the seal of Mr. Mendham.  He was unsure of the specific mark for these sealed bottles for they came from the Jerusalem Tavern.  Other bottles bore the mark of a wine-merchant.  Some of the stolen, sealed bottle remained intact for the corks had never been drawn.  In 1788 the Jerusalem Tavern sold wine in full quarts with the neck of the botle marked “with four lines cut by a diamond on the neck.”[43] Mary Bedford had bottled some Lisbon wine the day before she and her husband were robbed in the fall of 1790.  She had marked each bottle after they were corked.[34]  Stephen Ridington then recognized a single, particular cork because there was a crack in it and he had chalked the crack.  Apparently he chalked several dozen corks.  I found no other reference to chalking.  Charles Bird stole several bottles of wine from the Officer’s Mess at the Hounslow Barracks.[35]  The bottles were identified by Richard Corrall, Esquire, paymaster to the 15th Regiment of Light Dragoons, who stated that all of their wine bore the same mark.  There is only one instance of bottles being labeled and that was by the wine-cooper Peter Chalmers.  Perhaps to avoid confusion amongst the seven different types of wine and two types of liquor, he hand labeled all thirteen bottles.

"Loyal souls" James Gillray, 1797. 1851,0901.882. The British Museum.

“Loyal souls” James Gillray, 1797. 1851,0901.882. The British Museum.

It is of interest to point out that some of Jeremiah Wherlings’ bottles stolen in 1764 were marked by the Jerusalem Tavern and that of Christopher Bartholomew in 1788 were sealed by Mr. Mendham of Jerusalem Tavern.  Jeremiah Wherling lived at the Bear and Ragged Staff in West Smithfield.  This would place him within a third of a mile from the Jerusalem Tavern.  Christopher Bartholomew kept White Conduit House in the parish of St. Mary, Islington.  White Conduit House was located around one mile north of the Jerusalem Tavern.  Christopher Bartholomew inherited a good fortunate from his parents and was believed to be worth £50,000. The Jerusalem Tavern was established in 1741 and located in Clerkenwell Green literally within St John’s Gate.  This gate was originally built in 1504 as the entrance to the Prioiry of St John of Jerusalem.  James Mendham, Esquire was the master of the tavern until 1812 when he passed away at the age of 80.[36]  John Britton served his apprenticeship under Mendham for six years beginning in 1787.  John Britton’s Uncle Samuel never paid his apprenticeship fees so Britton’s six years were spent forcing or finning wines then bottling, corking, and binning them.  Mendham did not mix or manufacture wines.  Instead he dealt in wines from at least Portugal, Spain, and Germany.  Britton likened his apprenticeship as “legal English slavery” for each day he had to bottle off and cork a certain number of dozens.  Working expediently in the candlelit cellars, he could accomplish his task in ten or eleven hours time.  In 1771 it was observed that at White Conduit House “in the summer vast numbers of people resort hither to drink tea, coffee, wine, &c.”[37] Perhaps the clientele of White Conduit House required the unadulterated wines of the Jerusalem Tavern.

Wine Cellar, Jerusalem Tavern, Clerkenwell. John Britton, “The auto-biography of John Britton”, 1850.

As far as cellar organization Lewis Beauvais kept an outer cellar where wine for daily sale was kept.  The inner cellar was the store cellar and locked with a padlock.[38] He also kept his foul wine in the outer cellar and not the locked, store cellar.   1755, William Dickswell Grimes had so much wine in his store-cellar that 20 or 30 gallons could be taken without notice.  He stored both bottles and casks in the cellar.  Mr. Barnard stored his bottles in his cellar in different locations based on the type of wine.  In 1762 Mr. Barnard kept his Sherry standing next to the Madeira in his cellar.[39]  Thirteen years later, Lewis Beauvais kept Champaign at the bottom of the cellar and Madeira at the bottom, right-hand side.

In 1776 bottled wine was still kept in a heap on the floor.  Sir Edward Barry comments that a large heap of bottles in a merchant’s cellar was completely covered with salt.[40]  After several months this lot was in much better condition than another lot which was bottled at the same time.  He goes on to recommend storing wine in clay amphora buried in the earthen cellar floor.  Wine may be drawn off by siphon into a bottle then covered with some oil and a pitched cork.  He considered this for immediate use.  Andre Simon writes that the idea cylindrical bottle for Port came into fashion in 1784.[41] This bottle was sealed with a cork and was neatly stacked inside the bins of a wine cellar.  This new method of storing wine came to the attention of Parliament.  Prior to 1786 I find no mention of bottles and bins in the Statutes at Large.  On Thursday, 22 June 1786, Parliament considered repealing certain duties on wine which would be replaced by new duties.[42]  Lord Loughborough discussed the difficulties of gauging wine mentioning the impossibility of accounting for bottles in bins.  Later that day Parliament did repeal the old acts and imposed new acts which required dealers and sealers of foreign wine to show the Office of Excise bins as well.[43]  John Britton comments that during his apprenticeship from 1787-1793 the exciseman visited the cellars once every fortnight and was required “to keep tabular entry of wines and spirits in the vaults and house, both in cask and bottle.  This occupied between two and three hours.”  Britton also had to account for the bottles in bins.   The first mention of bins in the Proceedings corresponds with Parliament’s new requirements for bottled wine in bins.  In 1787 the Knowlys stored their bottles in completely full bins.  That same year Thomas Hindman commented he stored his wine in bins which had a door.


[1] Molloy, Charles.  De Jure Maritimo Et Navali. John Walthoe, London, 1722. URL: http://books.google.com/books?id=qN0wAAAAIAAJ&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q&f=false

[2] Pulling, Alexander. The law, customs, usages, and regulations of the City and Port of London. 2nd Edition. William Henry Bond, London, 1844. URL: http://books.google.com/books?id=ohcDAAAAYAAJ&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q&f=false
[3] Report From The Select Committee on Gauging in the Port Of London. London, 1814. URL: http://books.google.com/books?id=rS9bAAAAQAAJ&pg=PP9#v=onepage&q&f=false
[4] History of the Port of London pre 1908. URL: http://www.pla.co.uk/display_fixedpage.cfm/id/238 Date accessed: 07 June 2013.
[5] Old Bailey Proceedings Online (www.oldbaileyonline.org, version 6.0, 17 February 2013), December 1777, trial of DAVID CUNNINGHAM (t17771203-74).
[6] ‘Map of port of London’, The port and trade of early Elizabethan London: documents (1972), pp. 166-167. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=35965 Date accessed: 07 June 2013
[7] Old Bailey Proceedings Online (www.oldbaileyonline.org, version 6.0, 17 February 2013), May 1762, trial of William Brackleyhurst (t17620526-20).
[8] Old Bailey Proceedings Online (www.oldbaileyonline.org, version 6.0, 17 February 2013), January 1787, trial of ROBERT COLEMAN (t17870110-34).
[9] Old Bailey Proceedings Online (www.oldbaileyonline.org, version 6.0, 17 February 2013), October 1799, trial of JOHN SPALDING (t17991030-10).
[10] Old Bailey Proceedings Online (www.oldbaileyonline.org, version 6.0, 17 February 2013), December 1699, trial of Thomas Rachey (t16991213-1).
[11] Old Bailey Proceedings Online (www.oldbaileyonline.org, version 6.0, 17 February 2013), May 1755, trial of William Westwood Thomas Coulson (t17550515-35).
[12] Old Bailey Proceedings Online (www.oldbaileyonline.org, version 6.0, 17 February 2013), January 1792, trial of JOHN STUDLEY (t17920113-28).
[13] Old Bailey Proceedings Online (www.oldbaileyonline.org, version 6.0, 17 February 2013), December 1781, trial of JAMES FENTON (t17811205-60).
[14] Old Bailey Proceedings Online (www.oldbaileyonline.org, version 6.0, 17 February 2013), December 1795, trial of PETER CHALMERS (t17951202-36).
[15] Old Bailey Proceedings Online (www.oldbaileyonline.org, version 6.0, 17 February 2013), February 1773, trial of RICHARD KING (t17730217-50).
[16] Old Bailey Proceedings Online (www.oldbaileyonline.org, version 6.0, 17 February 2013), December 1740, trial of Thomas Crow (t17401204-60).
[17] Old Bailey Proceedings Online (www.oldbaileyonline.org, version 6.0, 17 February 2013), April 1782, trial of JANE BRAY (t17820410-72).
[18] Old Bailey Proceedings Online (www.oldbaileyonline.org, version 6.0, 17 February 2013), May 1787, trial of SAMUEL TOOMES WILLIAM ELLICOTT (t17870523-11).
[19] Swift, Jonathan.  The Works of Doctor Swift, Miscellanies, Volume 8.  C. Hitch, London 1746. URL: http://books.google.com/books?id=26TRAAAAMAAJ&pg=PR8#v=onepage&q&f=false
[20] Old Bailey Proceedings Online (www.oldbaileyonline.org, version 6.0, 17 February 2013), May 1687, trial of Joyce Fletcher (t16870512-17).
[21] Old Bailey Proceedings Online (www.oldbaileyonline.org, version 6.0, 17 February 2013), February 1762, trial of Mary Sherman (t17620224-4).

[22] Evelyn, John. Sylva, Or A Discourse of Forest-Trees. Jo. Martyn and Ja. Allestry, London, 1670. URL: http://books.google.com/books?id=8wQX9sHJ3BEC&pg=PR7#v=onepage&q&f=false

[23] The London Magazine or Gentleman’s Monthly Intelligencer, Vol 40, 1771. URL: http://books.google.com/books?id=zFwDAAAAMAAJ&pg=PP7#v=onepage&q&f=false
[24] Dictionaire Oeconomique or The Family Dictionary. D. Midwinter, London, 1725. URL: http://books.google.com/books?id=iXIiAQAAMAAJ&pg=PA1#v=onepage&q&f=false
[25] Pluche, Noel Antoine. Nature Delineated. James Hodges, London, 1740. URL: http://books.google.com/books?id=dmIwAQAAMAAJ&pg=PP11#v=onepage&q&f=false
[26] Miller, Philip. The Gardeners Dictionary. London, 1768. URL: http://books.google.com/books?id=F2pAoamM0h4C&pg=PT8#v=onepage&q&f=false
[27] Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Volume 23 for the years 1702 and 1703.
[28] Boyer. A. The Compleat French-master, for Ladies and Gentlemen, Tenth Edition.  Samuel Ballard, London, 1729. URL: http://books.google.com/books?id=MXUoAAAAYAAJ&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q&f=false
[29] Old Bailey Proceedings Online (www.oldbaileyonline.org, version 6.0, 17 February 2013), October 1764, trial of William Robinson (t17641017-25).
[30] Old Bailey Proceedings Online (www.oldbaileyonline.org, version 6.0, 17 February 2013), January 1775, trial of ROBERT ROBERTS (t17750111-28).
[31] Old Bailey Proceedings Online (www.oldbaileyonline.org, version 6.0, 17 February 2013), September 1780, trial of MARY BRITTLE GEORGE PARSONS (t17800913-89).
[32] Old Bailey Proceedings Online (www.oldbaileyonline.org, version 6.0, 17 February 2013), February 1785, trial of ELIZABETH LEE (t17850223-68).
[33] Old Bailey Proceedings Online (www.oldbaileyonline.org, version 6.0, 17 February 2013), September 1788, trial of MARTHA BURGESS (t17880910-72).
[34] Old Bailey Proceedings Online (www.oldbaileyonline.org, version 6.0, 17 February 2013), October 1790, trial of JOSEPH MARRIOTT JOHN SIMPSON (t17901027-45).
[35] Old Bailey Proceedings Online (www.oldbaileyonline.org, version 6.0, 17 February 2013), April 1798, trial of CHARLES BIRD (t17980418-10).
[36] Urban, Sylvanus.  The Gentleman’s Magazine, Vol. LXXXII, Part The Second.  Nichols, Son, and Bentley, London, 1812. URL: http://books.google.com/books?id=Wq8UAAAAQAAJ&pg=PP5#v=onepage&q&f=false
[37] Spencer Esq., Nathaniel.  The Complete English Traveler. J. Cook, London, 1772. URL: http://books.google.com/books?id=f3A-AAAAcAAJ&pg=PP7#v=onepage&q&f=false
[38] Old Bailey Proceedings Online (www.oldbaileyonline.org, version 6.0, 17 February 2013), January 1775, trial of ROBERT ROBERTS (t17750111-28).
[39] Old Bailey Proceedings Online (www.oldbaileyonline.org, version 6.0, 17 February 2013), February 1762, trial of Mary Sherman (t17620224-4).
[40] Burke, Edmund. The Annual Register For the Year 1776, J. Dodsley, London, 1788. URL: http://books.google.com/books?id=I3NiDTunIlAC&pg=PR1#v=onepage&q&f=false
[41] Simon, Andre. BottleScrew Days. Boston, 1927.
[42] The Parliamentary Register, Vol XX. J. Debrett, Piccadilly, 1787. URL: http://books.google.com/books?id=SGTJKPlOYnMC&pg=PP5#v=onepage&q&f=false
[43] The Statutes at Large of King George the Third. Charles Eyre, London 1789. URL: http://books.google.com/books?id=eqZFAAAAcAAJ&pg=PP5#v=onepage&q&f=false
[43] Timbs, John. Lady Bountiful’s Legacy to her Family and Friends. 1868. URL: http://books.google.com/books?id=ZAsYAAAAYAAJ&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q&f=false
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